HIST Lecture #15 10-13

HIST Lecture #15 10-13 - History #15 10/14/11 The Crisis of...

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History #15 10/14/11 The Crisis of the Late Middle Ages, 1300 -1450 In the High Middle Ages, towns pop up due to Agricultural Revolution. Attempts to synthesize philosophy of ancient thinkers. Good centuries. In the 14 th century, a series of crises come about and undermine the very foundation of medieval civilization. We’re going to look at four things: Crisis of the church and the papacy. Period of prolonged and qualitatively different warfare. Undermines the old role of the feudal warrior elite. Economic and demographic crisis that comes with famine and a plague. When all of these are combined, there is a psychological identity crisis. Monarchies have centralized power in the 12 th and 13 th centuries, but the church still remains very powerful despite secular authority questioning its power. Church had actually increased its authority by leading crusades. It was like a centralizing monarchy in the High Middle Ages. At the same time though, secular authority continues to grow at the expense of the authority of the church eventually. Kings begin taxing church property and try to appoint their vassals into the church hierarchy. The Lay Investiture Controversy never goes away. Pope Boniface VIII believes that the papacy is in decline and tries to excommunicate the French and English kings, neither of them back down. Instead, they take even more steps to assert control and Boniface withdraws threat of excommunication. In 1303, a new dispute between the French state and the papacy arises when King Philip imprisons a bishop of the pope. Boniface threatens excommunication, and Philip sends mercenaries to Rome to arrest Boniface. Boniface dies shortly after. Philip convinces Pope Clement V to move the papacy to Avignon, and he does. This period is known as the Avignon papacy. An Italian thinker refers to this as the second Babylonian Captivity. The role of the papacy in France is disputed. They had less authority to control their bishops in other parts of Europe, because not everyone in Europe recognized these popes. The Holy Roman Emperors denied the pope the right to crown them. Even after the papacy leaves Avignon, it never regains the authority that it
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This note was uploaded on 02/27/2012 for the course HIST 151 taught by Professor Hunziker during the Fall '07 term at UNC.

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HIST Lecture #15 10-13 - History #15 10/14/11 The Crisis of...

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