Perspectives Paper PSY310

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1 | P a g e Perspectives Paper Perspectives Paper PSY/310 04/04/2011 Patricia M. LaFountaine University of Phoenix
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2 | P a g e Perspectives Paper Perspectives Paper Psychological perspectives have changed as the field of psychology has progressed. The field of behaviorism in particular has had many influences on how we view human interaction and three men have helped pave the way for objectivity in psychology. John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner, and Edward C. Tolman played significant roles in introducing the use of objective methodology and operationism, and in doing so propelled the behaviorism movement forward and shaped the field of modern-day psychology. John B. Watson In 1878 John Broadus Watson was born to Emma and Pickens Watson, a poor family in Greenville, South Carolina. He entered Furman University at age 16 and six years later graduated with a Master’s degree in 1900. (Goodwin, 2008) He later became a faculty member at the University of Chicago, where he researched rats in mazes. The goal of the research project was to determine which senses were needed for a rat to learn in a maze. The rat studies involved removing the eyes of some rats, the inner ears of others, and olfactory bulbs from another group of rats. Although various senses were removed from the rats, they were still able to learn. Watson and Carr determined the only important factors in the formation of learned associations were “the kinesthetic impressions coupled with certain other intra-organic impressions” (Goodwin, 2008). The rats learned how many steps to take before turning in the maze. To provide direct evidence of their research Watson and Carr lengthened and shortened the maze. The results were conclusive. Rats trained in longer mazes ran into the walls in shorter mazes and vice
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3 | P a g e Perspectives Paper versa. These direct demonstrations gave the public more trust of Watson's scientific findings. In 1908 he was offered a position at John Hopkins University (Goodwin, 2008). In 1908, Watson was presented with an opportunity at Johns Hopkins University and became a professor in charge of psychology. During this time he made many advances in the field of psychology; proclaiming behaviorism and developing a program of research in developmental psychology, with an emphasis on the study of emotional development. He also became a leading researcher in the world of animal psychology. (Goodwin, 2008) Watson believed that behaviorism could deliver applications that would improve the quality of life. He began studying infants, investigating reflexes, basic emotional responses, and conditioned emotional responses. (Goodwin, 2008) During these studies he identified three instinctive emotions displayed by infants: fear, rage, and love; he explained that older children show these emotional responses to a much wider range of stimuli due to
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This note was uploaded on 02/26/2012 for the course FIN 102 taught by Professor Franks during the Spring '12 term at University of Phoenix.

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Perspectives Paper PSY310 - Perspectives Paper Page|1...

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