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NOTES - AOSC-CH 1 02:58 Weather the condition of the...

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AOSC-CH. 1 02:58 Weather- the condition of the atmosphere at a particular location and moment. Meteorology- the study of weather variables, the processes that cause weather, and the interaction of the atmosphere with the Earth’s surface, ocean, and life. Climate- the condition of the atmosphere over many years. Atmospheric Gases: Nitrogen (78.08%), Oxygen (21%), Argon (0.93%), Trace gases (carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, CFCs, water vapor) Carbon Cycle Nitrogen accumulating over billions of years (chemically stable gas) Oxygen from algae accumulation photosynthesis Carbon dioxide from volcanoes Source (supplies gas), Sink (removes gas) CO2 maximum in spring, minimum in autumn In summer, photosynthesis at maximum removing CO2 in winter, photosynthesis at minimum adding CO2 from decaying organisms and plants Ocean contain 50 times more CO2 than atmosphere-accumulates at bottom of ocean Hydrologic Cycle Evaporation from oceans is major source of atmospheric water vapor (can be from any water source) Transpiration- plants release water vapor into the atmosphere Surface of earth generally has largest amounts of water vapor and decreases as you move away from surface Clouds form due to condensation
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Precipitation is a sink of water vapor in the atmosphere Returns water to the Earth’s surface after it has evaporated completing the hydrologic cycle Methane- decay of organic substances in rice paddies, burning of forests, coal mining, cattle raising, etc. doubled since Industrial Revolution Aerosols- smoke, salt, ash, smog, dust (size measured in microns) Can influence climate of a region by modifying the amount of solar energy reaching the surface Density, Pressure, Altitude As the distance from the surface increases, the density of the air decreases a decrease in density results in a decrease in pressure, b/c there are fewer molecules in the same volume of air. Atmospheric pressure decreases rapidly with altitude Atmospheric Layers Four main layers- troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere To troposphere (10 km) from surface temperature decreases with altitude b/c surface is heated and rest is transparent to incoming solar heat Tropopause- acts as a lid on most weather patterns, height of it is a function of latitude (higher in equatorial regions than in cold polar regions) In stratosphere (10-50 km), temperature increases with altitude b/c ozone molecules in the stratospheric ozone layer are absorbing solar energy near the top of the stratosphere Stratopause average temp close to 0 celsius, warmer than ground below it in winter Mesosphere has temp decreasing with altitude (50 km-85 km) Mesopause Thermosphere- temp increases with altitude Weather Maps
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Cold, warm, stationary, occluded fronts Isotherms, isobars, isotachs, isopleth
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AOSC- Ch. 2 02:58 •Atmospheric Composition MOLECULAR OXYGEN AND NITROGEN ARE MAJOR COMPONENTS – 99% OF THE REMAINING 3% , 97% IS THE INERT GAS ARGON OF THE REMAINING 7%, 93% IS CARBON DIOXIDE ALL REMAINING GASES – ABOUT 2 PARTS IN 100,000 ARE KNOWN AS TRACE SPECIES
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