ARCH-TEST-3 - ARCHEOLOGY TEST 3 18:07 Anthropology 2015...

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ARCHEOLOGY TEST 3 18:07 Anthropology 2015: Introduction to Archaeology, Louisiana State University, Heather  McKillop  Lecture 10: word list for “Classification”  The search for order We classify thing in the world around to create order in our lives How do we identify them? Grouping artifacts in order to discover patterns of cultural behavior material classes divided into categories like pottery bone artifacts stone tools obsidian flint usually a different specialist studies artifacts of each material class why classify?  (1) simplify description you can describe each thing individually, but grouping like things together is easier (2) simplify intra-site comparisons
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you can compare whats happening at different places at your site  (3) look for patterning (chronology, production & trade, descent patterns, iconography)  record provenience data on excavation bags  on a artifact bag you have to put: label on excavation bag site name location depth date excavator if you don’t know the information, you throw it out type : artifacts that share attributes in distinctive way classify it into groups of artifacts that share similar characteristics same color same shape attribute :  pointed,  straight,  flat the expression of the variable red (color) vase (shape)
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round (rim shape) carved (decoration) variable :  rim,  neck,  base  task of archaeologist to select variables describe artifacts item by item in table place artifacts on a table, and then place them in similar orders make a graph table discrete (nominal) variables : eg. color  defined and doesn’t change makes making comparisons easier absolute catagories continuous variables : eg. measurements  are always measurements class intervals  
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change continuous variables into discrete variables e.g. diameter = large, medium, small contingency table  (2 way table)  compare 2 variables compare two nominal (discrete) variables is there order (patterning) in the data? How many artifact types? search for association between variables  question: Is there an association between variable a and variable b?  (Search for order  in data)  column totals  row totals  grand totals  observed  expected: row total x column total = grand total 
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monothetic types  polythetic types  chi-square   x2  degrees of freedom  (df)= how many cells can you take away and still figure out the  values from  the other information in the table?  2-way table: df=1  other tables: df = #rows-1 x  #columns -1 is there a statistically significant association between variables?  See table in back of statistics book: “ Critical Values of Chi-squre ”  level of significance:   df   .20 .10  .05  .02  1 1.64 2.71 3.84 5.41  2 3.22 4.61 5.99 7.82  Continuous variables (measurements)  eg. length (cm), weight (g) 
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