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Human Ost. - Health Status metric traits eg height from...

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Anthropology 2015: “Human Osteology for Archaeologists” Heather McKillop Human Osteology field id of bones: age at death sex health status (while alive) # bones? 206 adult skeleton; 300+ newborn skeleton babies are born with more bones which fuse together as they age) cranial: skull & mandible post-cranial spinal cord foramen magnum Aging (1) suture closure: close at known ages (2) fusion of long bones: fuse at known ages diaphysis (shaft) epiphysis (end) (3) teeth: 20 baby teeth, 32 adult teeth bone resorption: lose adult teeth→ mandible begins to disintegrate Sex 99% complete 85% hip bones 60% skull (1) hip bone: size of opening: female > than male (2) sciatic notch: female > than male (3) sub-pubic angle: female >90˚ than male (4) mandible angle: female sloping; male angular (5) brow ridge: male more pronounced (6) forehead: male sloping; female steep (7) occipital protuberance: male > than female (8) mastoid (ear): male > than female
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Unformatted text preview: Health Status metric traits eg height: from measuring femur length (long bones) non-metric traits eg Os Inca: three extra skull bones found on skull’s in Peru shovel-shaped incisors: trait of Native Americans (N & S), Asians lifestyle: cranial deformation: elongated skulls of the Maya horseback riding: hip-femur dislocation war: healed & unhealed bone cuts pigeon-toed: slight dislocation of bone squatting: “squatting facets” infections: spinal tb arthritis: fused vertebrae, “lipping” of vertebrae malnutrition: dental hypoplasia: horizontal lines on the teeth due to assault on health when teeth were forming (most often seen during weening) anemia: cribra orbitalia porotic hyperostosis diet: trace element analysis (eg. lead poisoning in Franklin Expedition) chemical analysis of bone: C13/12 for corn (corn=C3 plant; others are C4) N16/15 for marine or terrestrial fauna...
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