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Geography 2051NSgood

Geography 2051NSgood - Geography 2051 Dr Richard Kesel...

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Geography 2051 Dr. Richard Kesel Introduction What is geography: earth/ describe Approaches o A. systematic o B. regional o C. man-environment Region arbitrary, homogeneous character The Earth Shape: oblate spheroid o diameter 7927 miles o 27 miles shorter through poles o 72% water 1. N. Hemisphere land 2. S. Hemisphere water o depths Crust 2.7 density than water Maps and Grid Systems Problem: two dimensional surface Map Properties o A. direction/ azimuth o B. distance o C. area/ relative to each other o D. shape Area and shape cannot be shown accurately on the same map Types of Projections Planar/plane Conic Cylindrical Math/others Scale Verbal o One inch= one mile Graphic o 0_____1______2_____3______ Fractional
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o 1/62,500; 1/63,360 o Small scale vs. large scale o 1/250,000(verbally- one inch = 4 miles) Metes-Bound Survey Grid System Latitude- imaginary line running between East and West, measures and angular distance North to South; 0-90 degrees Longitude- imaginary line running North to South, measures angular disk; East to West; 0-180 degrees Contour Lines 1. Line on map that connects points of equal elevation 2. Contour interval 3. Interpolate 4. Bench marks (BM) highest this point would go is 49 ft Slope 1. Shape 2. Ingredient a. Ratio b. Percent c. Degrees Bearings Azimuth Azimuth East: 90 Azimuth South: 180 Azimuth West: 270 Compass points to magnetic north Baton Rouge Time: BR 1 PM Monday What time is it in NY? 2 PM Monday What time is it in LA? 11 AM Monday BR 11:30 PM Sunday What time is it in NY? 12:20 AM Monday What time is it in LA? 9:30 PM Sunday What Causes Seasons? Rotation on Earth’s axis Revolution around the sun
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Tilt of Earth on axis Parallelism of axis Earth’s axis is always facing the same direction at a 23.5 degree tilt Surface water Overflow, runoff (unconfined) o Rainfall reason for surface runoffs o infiltration Gullies, rills Channels, rivers Overland flow Rainfall intensity, duration infiltration 1. Grain-size Grain-size= sand; largest is gravel at 2.0 mm 2. Porosity- bunch of holes in it with a bunch of air space 3. Permeability- water can flow through it (sponge) 4. Other Slope Vegetation- the more vegetation it holds the water back Terms Porosity Permeability Aquifer doesn’t transmit water; high permeability Field capacity Wilting point Field Capacity saturated soil; water that remains (does not drain away after 24 hours) Wilting Point point below which plants can no longer vacuum moisture from the soil Porosity= Vv/V Degree of Saturation= Vw/ Vv Water Content= Ww/Ws Steeper the slope- more run-off Influent vs. Efficient Discharge= Q= (A x V) cfs (cubic feet per second) - velocity is most rapid in the middle of the channel v v v v v v v v v v 1 2 3 4 5 6 Q1= A (w x d) x v total= Q= 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 Highest mischarge in Mississippi River happens in the month of April Hydrograph
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Geo/ Morphology Subject can vary in scale, time, spatial context Few laws mostly concepts 1. Uniformitarianism- present is the key to the past 2.
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