Geography 20511-2 NS E1

Geography 20511-2 NS E1 - Geography 2051 TA's Javier...

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Geography 2051 TA’s: Javier Vazquez, HR 454, [email protected] , 578-6173; office hours MT- 2-3 8-24 What is geography: earth/describe Approaches: a. systematic b. regional c. man-enviroment Region arbitrary, homogenous character (core element with sphere of influence) The Earth Shape: oblate spheroid; diameter 7927 miles; 27 miles shorter through poles; 72% water; depths… Earth’s crust has density of 2.7x of water, mantle has density of 3.3x of water Maps and grid systems Problem: two dimensional surface Map properties: a. direction/azimuth b. distance c. area/relative to each other d. shape; area and shape can’t be shown accurately on same map Types of projections Planar/plane- take a paper globe and shine a light from the center onto a screen Conic- cone on top of globe Cylindrical- cylinder around the globe; chart map; Mercator projection; used to plot courses Math/others Scale Verbal- one inch=one mile Graphic- 0________1________2___________3 Fractional- 1/62,500 (1 inch= 1 mile); 1/63,360 Small scale vs. large scale- 1/250,000 (1 inch=4 miles); smaller than this is a small scale map and greater than this is a large scale map Grid system Latitude- imaginary line that runs East-West but measures angular distance N-S; 0-90 Longitude- imaginary lines running N-S that measure angular distance E-W; 0-180 degrees
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Contour lines 1. Line on a map that connects points of equal elevation 2. Contour interval- vertical integration between two successive contour lines 3. Interpolate- found by using contour lines to find elevation of a place 4. Bench marks Bearings Azimuth Bearings taken N/S; direction calculated degrees from N/S Compasses point to magnetic north Faults: line where tectonic plates meet and collide with other plates; plates moving over and under one another causes pressure and results in earthquakes and volcanoes; crumpling at the fault lines results in mountain ranges Eustatic change- glaciers and oceans change size on a world-wide scale dependently of each other Weathering Physical- disintegration o Need Bare Rock- exposed rock o Heating and cooling- extreme temperature changes; diurnal changes- hot in afternoon, cold at night thermal expansion coefficient- rate of expansion and contraction in minerals; causes minerals to break apart o Larger mineral chunks don’t weather as fast as smaller ones o Freezing and thawing- water enters pores, cracks, or joints and expand to break rock down; number of freeze-thaw cycles (diurnal vs. annual); more cycles, the better at breaking rock down (diurnal better) o Salts- salt growth in rocks form crystals that can chip away at the rock o Vegetation- tree roots can make their way down to a rock and crack it o Exfoliation- exposure to erosion o Temperatures take a long time to get deep into the ground o Niches created by salt weathering in the base of cliffs Chemical o Need water o Change of substance o Goes deep below surface
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Geography 20511-2 NS E1 - Geography 2051 TA's Javier...

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