Final Review Sheet KEY

Final Review Sheet KEY - Final Review Sheet Brief review...

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Final Review Sheet Brief review Sperm are produced in the Sertoli cells. Sperm are linked by cytoplasmic bridges because certain gene products on the x chromosome are necessary for sperm development. Spermatid to mature sperm is a process of reorganization . Females are born with primarily oocytes frozen in prophase I . During ovulation, a secondary oocyte frozen in metaphase II is released. It is only after fertilization that the oocyte completes meiosis . Gamete Structure Sperm Structure Head contains the acrosome and the nucleus . The acrosome contains enzymes and contains an inner and outer membrane . The neck contains centrioles which are necessary for the first mitotic division. The midpiece contains mitochondria which are necessary for movement . The flagella consists of the midpiece and the tail . Secondary oocyte (ovum) structure
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In the picture above, the perivitelline space is depicted in blue and contains a polar body . The zona pellucida is colored white in the picture above and contains glycoproteins which have sugars on them. The corona radiata is also known as the cumulus oophorus and consists of layers of follicular cells. Sexual Response Cycle The parasympathetic system is involved in arousal . The sympathetic system is involved in orgasm . Stages of the Masters and Johnson theory sexual response cycle: 1. Excitement a. Female response: vaginal lubrication, widening vaginal cavity, increased blood flow and muscle tension b. Male response: erection, thickened scrotal skin, cremastor reflex (elevated testes), muscle tension 2. Plateau - period of full arousal a. Female response clitoral hood covers retracted clitoris, uterus elevates b. Male response: Cowper’s gland secretion, swelling, elevation and rotation of testes 3. Orgasm a. Female response: contractions of uterus and outer part of vaginal wall, inner part of vagina expands, release of muscular tension b. Male response: emission (fluids mix with sperm), expulsion (opening of external urethral sphincter semen expelled) 4. Resolution a. (men only) refractory period - sexual stimuli have no effect Journey of Ejaculated Sperm Seminal plasma is the fluid in semen that contains ATP to provide energy; if there are insufficient amounts of this, the result is decreased fertility . Vagina cervix uterus oviduct (fallopian tube) fertilization occurs at ampullary- isthmic junction Most sperm die in the vagina due to the acidic environment, and dying sperm are engulfed by white blood cells.
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Sperm movement is somewhat influenced by chemotaxis (movement towards a chemical ) and thermotaxis (movement towards heat ), but once in the fallopian tube, sperm are guided by cilia which have 2-way movement. The cilia at the grooves move the sperm towards the ovary , while the cilia at the ridges move the ovum towards the uterus .
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