179 - 5A - Theories of Smoking Biological Effects of...

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Theories of Smoking Biological Effects of nicotine Tolerance develops over time Dopamine – reward pathways Operant conditioning Genetic evidence for addiction Heath and Madden (1995) – Genes account for portion of ‘initiation’ and ‘persistence’ True et al. (1997) Genes accounted for 50% of the risk of smoking
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Psychological Theory Learning theory Conditioning • Initially smoking is unpleasant – Pleasant associations of smoking generalize to other settings Smoking used as reward or to avoid punishment Ikard et al. (1969) six smoking motivation factors Reduction of negative affect Habit Addiction • Pleasure • Stimulation • Sensorimotor manipulation Murray (1988) added two more among young smokers: • Boredom • Nothing to do Stress and smoking link
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Social Theory Smoking is social , even when alone Different meaning in different situations At work, outside work, at a bar with friends
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179 - 5A - Theories of Smoking Biological Effects of...

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