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205-2 - Lecture 2 a Early Sound Recording b Rhythm...

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Lecture 2 a) Early Sound Recording b) Rhythm & Blues (Chicago Blues) Early Sound Recording Thomas Edison invented sound recording in 1877 His phonograph was acoustic (mechanical): sound engraved on a tin cylinder Alexander Graham Bell’s graphophone (1885) replaced tin with wax: improved sound quality Emile Berliner: develops the gramophone from 1888-1896 Replaces cylinder with flat disc, the format that eventually dominates A problem with early recording: performers had to be close to the horn to maximize sound Electrical Recording Ca. 1925 electrical recording increases the sonic accuracy of records For the first time, it became possible to record performances of orchestras etc. Electric record players soon became commercially available: improved sound Formats 78 rpm disc: limit of three minutes per side 33 1/3 rpm LP (long play) disc: introduced 1948, expands limit to 20 minutes per side Uses vinyl, rather than shellac: quieter, better sound again About the same time the 45 rpm disc is introduced, about 3 minutes per side: used for pop music Magnetic tape recording Invented in 30s, common in studios by late 40s Sound waves converted to electronic signals, imprinted on magnetic tape and then transferred to disc
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