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JOURNALISM FNAL EXAM 1. Short answer questions 2. Journalist biographies 3. Essay 4. Half of test – last third of semester 5. Half of test – entire semester (essay question) – larger view, what we’ve learned about it, historically its development as a profession – who became known as reporters, correspondents etc., what it means to be a journalist, what we now know as a reporter was hatched at the beginning of the 19 th century particularly with the penny press which begs the question what is the journalist and why were these people hired by the owners of the papers become journalists, it wasn’t sudden, it was gradual, things had to happen, importance of having independent journalist or reporter gathering information became more important as newspapers increased in size and events dictated it (civil war important because reporters covered war, photojournalism, Hearst and Pulitzer – mass circulation newspapers started in NY, started to see and become modern newspaper and reporter, beginning of 20 th century brought professionalization movement with Missouri journalism school, ethics code became national with canons of journalism, same thing happened for photographers with WW2 through coining photojournalism then schools offered courses and professional associations came around, radio in play 1920, tv in play 1940, new mediums coming in and everytime there is a new medium (cable tv 1980), and internet 1990s it creates opportunities for journalists and challeneges ‘how do we do what we’ve done all along and maintain ethics and working principles that essentially tell the rest of the world we are professionalists’ majority of grade Phases of Media Ownership - Early newspapers owned by individuals of families - Newspaper chains began to dominate ownership - Giant media conglomerates own multiple companies - Interne age gives rise to companies that traffic in information (think about Hearst and Pulitzer getting involved in newspapers towards end of 19 th century, owners who were incredible businessmen and saw the future of journalism, became chains – still norm, only departure has been the addition of television, cable, and the internet you see conglomerates BIG 6 means media ownership has become consolidated because own more than one platform) (internet age allows companies to traffic in information…enable journalism) Consolidation of Control - in 1983 fifty corporations had control of more than half of the us newspaper, magazine, tv, radio and music production - 1987 control in the hands of 29 companies - 2004 only 6 companies controlled majority Big 6 - Walt Disney - News Corp - Time Warner
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