journalism notes3

journalism notes3 - TEXT BOOK NOTES Chapter 13 Media Law...

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TEXT BOOK NOTES Chapter 13 Media Law: Free Speech and Fairness 1. Alien and Sedition Acts – laws passed in 1798 that made it a crime to criticize the government of the United States 2. Libel – a published statement that unjustifiably exposes someone to ridicule or contempt; for a statement to be libel it must satisfy the three elements of defamation, identification, and publication 3. Defamation – to defame is to damage a person’s reputation 4. Identification – no person can sue for libel unless the defamation can be proved to apply to him or her 5. Publication – to be libelous, the statement must be published or broadcast and seen by someone other than the author or the person who was defamed 6. Privilege – a legal defense against libel that holds that statements made in government meetings, court, or in government documents cannot be used as the basis for a libel suit 7. The Defense of Truth – Zenger case established truth as an absolute defense against libel 8. Opinions – neither true nor false, so a statement of opinion cannot be used as the basis of a libel suit 9. New York Times v. Sullivan – 10. Actual Malice – a reckless disregard for the truth or falsity of a published account; this became the standard for libel plaintiffs who were public figures or public officials after the Supreme Court’s decision in New York Times v. Sullivan 11. Intrusion – invasion of privacy by physical trespass into a space surrounding a person’s body or onto property under his or her control 12. False Light – invasion of privacy in which a journalist publishes untrue statements that alter a person’s public image in a way that he or she cannot control 13. Misappropriation – invasion of privacy by using a person’s name or image for commercial purposes without his or her permission 14. Prior Restraint – a judicial order that stops a media organization from publishing or broadcasting a story or image 15. Shield Laws – laws that give journalists special protection from having to testify in court about their stories and sources 16. Obscenity – sexually explicit material that is legally prohibited from being published 17. Equal Time Provision – an FCC policy that requires broadcast stations to make equivalent amounts of broadcast time available to all candidates running for public office 18. Fairness doctrine – a former FCC policy that required television stations to “afford reasonable opportunity for the discussion of conflicting views on issues of public importance” 19. Net Neutrality – rules that would require Internet service providers to give equal access to all online content providers Chapter 14 Media Ethics: Truthfulness, Fairness, and Standards of Decency
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1. Morals – an individual’s code of behavior based on religious or philosophical principles. Morals define right and wrong in ways that may or may not be rational 2. Ethics – a rational way of deciding what is good for individuals or society. Ethics
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journalism notes3 - TEXT BOOK NOTES Chapter 13 Media Law...

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