Phil 140 final study guide

Phil 140 final study guide - Inamine 1 Philosophy 140:...

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Inamine 1 Philosophy 140 : Contemporary Moral and Social Issues Final Exam Study Guide GENERAL STUFF TO KNOW: The “Slippery Slope” Fallacy : If O1 has characteristic, C, and the difference between O1 and O2 cannot provide a principled reason for thinking that one of O1 and O2 would have C while the other would lack it, then O2 has characteristic C. Thought experiments : cases that isolate relevant variables and screen-off irrelevant considerations so that we can form clear judgments about the relationships between variables. Principle of Double Effect : sometimes it’s morally permissible to bring about as an expected but unintended side effect that it would be wrong to bring about intentionally. Objection : The principle justifies our performing actions where we expect very bad things to happen so long as we aim at something good. ABORTION: Key Terms /Things to Know : Roe v. Wade (1973): legalized abortion prior to fetal viability Induced abortion : intentional termination of fetal life Arguments : For : Warren Even if fetuses have a right to life, abortion should be permitted where there is a conflict with mothers’ rights: Right to life (life-threatening cases) Right to self defense Right to autonomy over own body Objection : Fetuses’ rights to life have priority because pregnancy is a mothers’ voluntary choice. Reply : rape Judith Jarvis Thomson (Against the priority of a fetus’s right to life) P1. Nobody has a right to the use of another’s body without consent. P2. Therefore, nobody has a right to life at the expense of another’s control of her own body without consent. ----------------------- C. Therefore, a fetus doesn’t have a right to life at the expense of its mother’s control of her own body without consent. Objection to P1 : We ought to morally do whatever we can to save others’ lives if the cost of ourselves isn’t too great. Consequentialist 1. 2. Mother’s quality of life 3. Psychological burden of parenthood 4. Child’s quality of life 5. Overstretching social & natural resources
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Inamine 2 Against : Don Marquis (A right to life is acquired at conception.) P1. Killing is wrong because it deprives and individual of future good experiences. P2. From conception, a fetus is an individual capable of future good experiences. ------------------- C. Therefore, killing a fetus is wrong. Objection to P1 : Contraception also deprives individuals of future good experiences, but is not wrong. Objection to P2 : The early fetus is just a lump of cells, whose matter will all be replaced. Therefore it isn’t capable of future experiences. Consequentialist 1. Pain inflicted on fetus 2. Loss of child’s future happiness 3. Child’s future contributions to society 4. Right to Life P1. Abortion is the intentional killing of innocent persons. P2. Intentional killing of innocent persons violates their right to life.
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This note was uploaded on 02/27/2012 for the course PHIL 140g taught by Professor Kwon during the Fall '07 term at USC.

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Phil 140 final study guide - Inamine 1 Philosophy 140:...

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