Philosophy 140 Exam 1 Cheat Sheet

Philosophy 140 Exam 1 Cheat Sheet - Philosoophy 140 Exam 1...

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Philosoophy 140 Exam 1 Cheat Sheet Moral issues are normative (based on what ought to be rather than what is) Is - Ought Distinction (or Fact / Value Distinction ): all normative claims are non-descriptive, and all descriptive claims are non-normative. An ‘ought’ can be non-moral if its for prudence, etiquette, or instrumental advice Arguments consist of two propositions: premise (starting point) and conclusion (ending point) linked by an inference (logical connection between the two) o Purpose of an argument is to support the claim that its conclusion is true o Argument can have bad inferences ( valid v. invalid ) or false premises ( sound v. unsound ) Sound arguments always have true conclusions Unsound arguments may have true or false conclusions If it is not valid, it cannot be sound o Deductive v. Inductive Arguments Deductive argument : aims to logically prove their conclusion Inductive argument : aims to show that their conclusion is true Can be strong or weak o Weak if they are based on small samples or if there are counterexamples o Fallacy of Equivocation : use of same word in multiple premises that changes meaning and wrongly determines the conclusion Theories 1. Moral Relativism Description : People create their own morality; no objective moral truths, only opinions/preferences. The belief that something is right or wrong makes it right or wrong for that individual. Belief - relativism : different cultures/individuals have different moral opinions Moral relativism : moral claims (not actions) are not objectively true or false Non - cognitivism : moral claims are not objectively true or false because they express feelings, not beliefs Cultural relativism : societal norms form the basis of morality; customs, not universal truths Objections : Allows people to justify ludicrous actions based on their own, personal morals. People would
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Philosophy 140 Exam 1 Cheat Sheet - Philosoophy 140 Exam 1...

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