USP 144 course summary and review 12.1.11

USP 144 course summary and review 12.1.11 - USP 144...

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Unformatted text preview: USP 144: Environmental and Preventive Health Services 12/1/11 Get a sense of the health status in the U.S. Understand the multiple, interrelated social, environmental and biological factors that influence health and disease; Gain a basic overview of public health principles, terminology and prevention strategies; Be able to apply abstract principles and prevention strategies to concrete case studies and scenarios related to public health; Be conversant in public health policy questions and debates So what’s the good and bad re: the state of the nation’s health? Are we in better shape than we were a hundred years ago? Lo bueno (the good): Improved life expectancy (mostly due to improved survival rates from infancy and childhood): 45 in 1900; 80 now Improved sanitation, nutrition and housing from the beginning of the 20 th century Consequent drops in infectious disease rates: In 1900, children under age 5 accounted for 30.4 percent of deaths; now they account for only around 1% Discovery of penicillin, various vaccines and better medical treatment helped continue this trend Medical advances improved our capacity to respond to trauma, extend life at the end-of-life, and increase neonatal survival rates Improvements in nutrition and food safety from the beginning of the 20 th century (fortification of foods eliminated most vitamin-deficiency diseases; basic food safety, hand-washing, etc.) Improvements in occupational safety through policy/regulation & labor unions Improvements in overall and population-specific health due to economic leveling policies (education, employment, civil rights) from the 60s through around 1980 (when policies changed) Improved road safety and injury prevention Decreases in mortality rates for some diseases (breast cancer, CHD, etc.) Reduction in smoking rates Lo malo (the bad): Shamefully bad markers of health compared to other industrialized nations (Infant mortality rates, depression rates, obesity rates, teenage pregnancy and suicide rates, levels of violence as measured by murder rates, rape statistics, incarceration rates=higher than any other nation) Large health disparities (poorer you are, the sicker you are likely to be; and the U.S. has a very high GINI social inequality index + low social mobility) This is bad not just for the poor, marginalized and underserved, but for the population as a whole Unequal access to medical care Changes in agriculture, food processing & globalized food market has created new problems and risks: nutrient depletion, new food borne threats (e.g., E. coli, “mad cow disease“), practices that leave a large ecological footprint, contribute to climate change Epidemic rates of overweight and obesity, Type 2 diabetes Smoking still an issue: 20-30% prevalence rates, depending on state, specific population New problems with antibiotic resistant strains of TB, and other bacterial infections (MRSA,...
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USP 144 course summary and review 12.1.11 - USP 144...

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