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Introducing Intercultural Communication Global Cultures and Contexts 3rd - Shuang Liu.pdf

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Unformatted text preview: Introducing Intercultural Communication 2 3 Introducing Intercultural Communication Global Cultures and Contexts Third Edition Shuang Liu Zala Volčič & Cindy Gallois Los Angeles London New Delhi Singapore Washington DC Melbourne 4 SAGE Publications Ltd 1 Oliver’s Yard 55 City Road London EC1Y 1SP SAGE Publications Inc. 2455 Teller Road Thousand Oaks, California 91320 SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area Mathura Road New Delhi 110 044 SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd 3 Church Street #10-04 Samsung Hub Singapore 049483 © Shuang Liu, Zala Volčič and Cindy Gallois 2019 First edition published 2010, reprinted 2011, 2012 and 2013 Second edition published 2015 This third edition published 2019 Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or 5 transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers. Library of Congress Control Number: 2018943073 British Library Cataloguing in Publication data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 978-1-5264-3169-1 ISBN 978-1-5264-3170-7 (pbk) Editor: Michael Ainsley Assistant editor: John Nightingale Senior assistant editor, digital: Chloe Statham Production editor: Imogen Roome Copyeditor: Sarah Bury Proofreader: Leigh C. Smithson Indexer: Adam Pozner Marketing manager: Lucia Sweet Cover design: Lisa Harper-Wells Typeset by: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, Chennai, India Printed in the UK 6 Detailed Contents Preface Acknowledgements Online Resources Introduction: Communicating in a Culturally Diverse Society 1 Challenges of Living in a Global Community Introduction Contributors to Cultural Diversity Challenges from Cultural Diversity and Multiculturalism Necessity and Benefits of Intercultural Communication Summary Join the Debate: Does Communication Technology Bring Us Closer or Separate Us Further? Case Study: Turkish Soap Operas in the Arab World Further Readings and Video 2 Culture and People Introduction Components and Characteristics of Culture Cultures within Culture Discursive Construction of Culture and Identity Summary Join the Debate: Are We What We Eat? Case Study: Food Culture in China Further Readings and Video 3 Communication and Culture Introduction The Multifaceted Nature of Communication Components and Characteristics of Communication Models of Communication Influence of Culture on Communication Summary Join the Debate: Can We Not Communicate? Case Study: Communicating Beauty through Barbie Dolls Further Readings and Video 4 Perception and Categorization Introduction Stages of the Perception Process 7 Social Categorization and Intercultural Communication The Influence of Culture on Perception Summary Join the Debate: Why Does Appearance Matter? Case Study: Perception of the Veil by Muslim Women Further Readings and Video 5 Value Orientations and Behaviour Introduction Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck’s Value Orientations Schwartz’s Cultural Taxonomy Intercultural Communication Ethics Summary Join the Debate: Should Same-Sex Marriage Be Accepted across the World? Case Study: Freedom of Expression and Hate Speech Further Readings and Video 6 Identities and Subgroups Introduction Definitions of Identities at the Individual and Collective Levels Identity Development and Identity Negotiation Subgroups and Identities Identities and Intercultural Communication Summary Join the Debate: Is Identity What We Have or What We Perform? Case Study: Using National Identity to Brand Australia Further Readings and Video 7 Verbal Communication and Culture Introduction The Components and Characteristics of Verbal Codes Language, Thoughts and Behaviour Cultural Variations in Verbal Communication Language and the Discursive Construction of Identity Summary Join the Debate: Do ‘The Limits of My Language Mean the Limits of My World’? Case Study: Culture Jamming Further Readings and Video 8 Nonverbal Communication and Culture 8 Introduction Characteristics and Functions of Nonverbal Communication Types of Nonverbal Communication Influence of Culture on Nonverbal Communication Summary Join the Debate: Can We Lie with Our Body Language? Case Study: Nonverbal Behaviour in Politics – The Case of Vladimir Putin Further Readings and Video 9 Immigration and Acculturation Introduction Immigration and Cultural Diversity Culture Shock and Acculturation Strategies of Cross-Cultural Adaptation Summary Join the Debate: To What Extent Should Immigrants Be Encouraged to Maintain their Heritage Culture? Case Study: Refugees in Europe Further Readings and Video 10 Intercultural and Intergroup Relations Introduction Dimensions and Characteristics of Human Relationships Conditions and Stages of Relationship Development Culture and Human Relationship Development Summary Join the Debate: Is the Internet a Sustainable Site for Building Intercultural Romantic Relationships? Case Study: Indian Wedding – Marry Me, Marry My Family Further Readings and Video 11 Intercultural and International Conflicts Introduction Defining Conflict Types and Identifying Potential Sources of Conflict Conflict Stages and Conflict Management Influence of Culture on Conflict Management Summary Join the Debate: Can Celebrities Promote Humanitarian Campaigns in Regions Where There Is Conflict or War? Case Study: Celebrity Activism in War-Torn Societies Further Readings and Video 9 12 Mass Media and Cultural Change Introduction Communication Technology and Mass Media in the Digital Age Mass Media Ownership and Content Media Construction of Social Reality and Media Effects Mass Media and Cultural Change Summary Join the Debate: What Are the Parents’ Roles in Young Children’s Use of Digital Media? Case Study: Social Media and Fake News Further Readings and Video 13 Effective Intercultural Communication in a Global Society Introduction Dialectics of Homogenization and Fragmentation Diffusion, Convergence, Hegemony and Colonization Developing Intercultural Communication Competence Summary Join the Debate: Will Our Attitudes and Tastes Become More ‘Provincial’ in the Global Economy? Case Study: Chinatown as a Transnational Space Further Readings and Video Glossary References Index 10 Preface This third edition of Introducing Intercultural Communication: Global Cultures and Contexts consolidates its reputation as an introduction to intercultural communication from the global perspective. This global perspective made the previous editions stand out among other competitors in the market. The realization that the second edition was so well received by scholars, colleagues, instructors, and, more importantly, students across the world in the past three years has left us with a sense of achievement. We interpret this success to mean that a book with a global perspective has resonated with an international audience. We sincerely appreciate the positive feedback we have received from instructors across the world, who describe the second edition as a book that not only helps students to apply theory to the real world, but also fosters critical thinking. The clarity and scope of the second edition were highly praised, as was the diversity of content. Instructors who adopted the second edition recognized the learning features as both pedagogically helpful and visually appealing, making complex materials more accessible yet retaining the book’s academic rigour to take students further in the intercultural communication field. In this third edition of the book, we embrace the opportunity to refine and improve on the content and features that have proven successful in the second edition, while also updating and expanding the book to keep abreast of current theories and research in the field. This new edition continues our commitment to presenting intercultural communication theories and applications through a global prism and in a lively, interesting, relevant and accessible writing style. At the same time, it maintains the high standard of intellectual depth and rigour in scholarly discussions about theories and applications. New content has been added to the book in relation to theories, concepts, applications and case studies, which take students into some new territory, empower them in active learning and encourage critical thinking. We have updated the content of each chapter to reflect the state-of-the-art knowledge and current research in the field. We have replaced 11 out of 13 case studies from the second edition, and updated the remaining two case studies with new material. Further, more examples from a diverse set of cultures have been added to broaden the coverage of cultures even more. These include Scandinavia, Kosovo, North Africa, the Netherlands, Sweden, Russia, Saudi Arabia, 11 Finland and the United States. Theoretical debates throughout the book give students opportunities to exercise their potential, and possibly to target postgraduate students. This new edition has a stronger emphasis on the application of knowledge and skills. Hands-on exercises, entitled ‘Do it!’, have been added to each chapter to encourage students to apply what they have learned to real-life situations. In response to the reviews, we have also streamlined the presentation of various topics and expanded the coverage of theories. At every point in the new edition we have tried to put ourselves in the student’s place, drawing upon the learning experiences of hundreds of culturally diverse students whom we have been privileged to teach. New to the third edition Updated content. Various new sections and content have been added throughout the book to fill in the gaps identified in the reviews and to reflect current developments in the field. New and updated content includes refugees in Europe, discursive construction of culture and identity, the transactional model of communication, digital communication and digital media, fake news, nation branding, culture jamming, and technology diffusion theories. These are just some examples. Combined Theory Corner and Theory in Practice. The Theory Corner section in the third edition combines Theory Corner with Theory in Practice from the second edition to achieve a clearer layout by reducing the number of boxed texts. The questions at the end of the Theory in Practice from the second edition have been moved to the Online resources for instructors. Application exercises within text – named ‘Do it!’. Three hands-on exercises have been added to each chapter as ‘experiential tasks’. This new feature puts more emphasis on the application of knowledge and encourages students to experiment with what they have learned in class in real-life situations. New case studies. All reviewers and our own students embraced and endorsed the case studies. To build on the success of this feature, we have replaced 11 case studies from the second edition with completely new cases, and we have updated the other two case studies with new materials. These case studies cover a range of topics and cultures, ranging from refugees in Europe, food culture in China, 12 culture jamming, to freedom of expression and hate speech, Barbie dolls, Turkish soap operas, fake news and the Building Brand Australia programme Australia Unlimited. Links to SAGE video sources. A URL link to a video relevant to the content of each chapter is provided at the end of each chapter. The video, drawn from the SAGE video library, usually features experts in the specific field talking about the subject area (e.g., nonverbal communication). It complements and consolidates the chapter content. Retained from the second edition Join the Debate. The Join the Debate feature in the second edition was endorsed by instructors and students alike. These sections pose challenging questions and highlight current debates in the intercultural communication field. This feature enables students to explore the field further and encourages them to engage in scholarly discussion about issues surrounding intercultural communication research and practice. Annotated further readings. Annotated further readings at the end of each chapter consolidate and complement students’ learning. In this new edition, the five further readings in each chapter are updated. In addition, a list of further readings is provided in the Online resources for instructors. Chapter summaries. The summary of each chapter highlights the key points covered. In response to the reviews, the chapter summaries in this new edition are updated in accordance with the updated content of each chapter, but retain the format of bullet points, as in the second edition, to make them more concise and easier to follow. Pictures. The illustrative pictures were praised by reviewers and students as original and interesting. We retained this feature, but we have replaced many of the pictures in the third edition in order to align with the revised text and enhance their illustrative power. Glossary. The glossary, containing definitions of all the key terms used in the text, is retained to give users a quick index of the key concepts covered and their definitions. We have retained this feature but updated the glossary to incorporate new content from this third edition. Online resources for instructors and students. In this edition, we have 13 updated all the exercises and activities, as well as the multiple-choice questions, to align with the new content. The original sections have been retained with updated content: lecture notes, power points, further readings, exercises and activities, and multiple-choice questions. Additional multiple-choice questions have been added for student access as well. Removed from this edition Theory in Practice. This feature is combined with Theory Corner in the third edition. In other words, the Theory Corner in this edition contains both theory and theory in practice. The further readings and questions in the Theory in Practice boxes in the second edition have been moved to the Online resources. Critical thinking questions within the text. Critical thinking questions in the second edition have been replaced by hands-on experiential tasks in this third edition, to enable students to apply their knowledge in practice. This new feature is named ‘Do it!’. 14 Acknowledgements We would like to thank all those who have helped us as we progressed through the journey to complete this third edition. We thank the reviewers for their insightful comments on the second edition, and we appreciate their valuable suggestions for improvement. A special note of thanks goes to the many instructors who have adopted the second edition over the past two years, as well as scholars who have provided their feedback through various channels, including the website of SAGE Publications. Their positive comments on the second edition are especially gratifying, and their suggestions for improvement have helped us to rethink and reshape this new edition. We have all had the privilege of teaching and doing research in intercultural communication, and these experiences have framed our outlook on this fascinating field. We are indebted to our colleagues, friends and students, both at The University of Queensland and at other institutions around the world where we have studied, worked or spent periods of research leave. All of them have contributed to this book in various ways, including providing feedback on our intercultural communication classes, sharing their ideas with us, and lending us references and photos from their collections. In particular, we are grateful to Professor Carley Dodd from Abilene Christian University, who granted us permission to include his model of culture, and to Alison Rae for granting us permission to use the photos she took while travelling around the world collecting stories as a reporter. We express our sincere gratitude to colleagues who have shared their exercises with us to help the development of the online resources for instructors and students. Special thanks go to everyone who has given us support, time and encouragement. We express sincere appreciation to the Commissioning Editor at SAGE Publications, Michael Ainsley. Without his encouragement and support, this third edition would not have come to fruition. We are grateful to Mila Steele at SAGE Publications, who was the senior Commissioning Editor for the first and second editions of this book. If it had not been for the confidence and support she gave us, the previous two editions of this book would not have come into being, either. Special thanks also go to the assistant editor, John Nightingale, others on the editorial staff, and the 15 anonymous reviewers who reviewed sample chapters of the manuscript. Their insightful suggestions have greatly contributed to an improved book. We would like to thank everyone from SAGE Publications whose work has transformed the manuscript into its present form. Finally, we are deeply indebted to our families for their support, love, encouragement and patience throughout the writing of this book. 16 Online Resources Introducing Intercultural Communication is supported by a wealth of online resources for both students and instructors to support learning, studying and teaching. They are available at For students Further reading suggestions to guide you deeper into the literature. These include books, journal articles and web sources. For those articles published in SAGE Journals there are links providing free access. Multiple choice questions to help you test your knowledge on key topics. Videos tied to each chapter in which experts in the field discuss key ideas, trends, themes and debates covered in the text. For instructors Discussion questions and activities to help structure seminars and group work. Instructor notes to aid the integration of each chapter’s learning objectives with classroom sessions. 17 PowerPoint slides to help structure lectures in line with the book. Multiple choice questions and answers to help inspire ideas for assessments. 18 Introduction: Communicating in a Culturally Diverse Society Since ancient times, borders (visible and invisible) have always existed between countries, states, cities, regions, villages, and even houses. Geographic and artificial boundaries –rivers, oceans, mountains, walls, fences and signs – all separate country from country, region from region, and people from people. However, culture has never been confined to these geographic or artificial borders. For example, as early as the fifteenth century, Aesop’s Fables was translated from Greek, the language in which the fables were originally written, into English, thus making them accessible to entirely new cultural, national and geographical audiences. Today, the fables, available in many languages across the world, have permeated many cultures as myths and legends, providing entertainment and moral truisms for children and adults alike. Regardless of where we live, the colour of our skin or what language we speak, it is likely we have at some time encountered many of the morals or adages of Aesop’s Fables – for instance, ‘Slow and steady wins the race’ from the tale of the tortoise and the hare. While we might not know whether those stories were in fact written by Aesop, exactly when they were written or how many languages they have been translated into, the tales still teach us universal virtues like honesty, perseverance, modesty and mutual respect. Other cultural and material products are also spread beyond borders, including tools, technology, clothing, food, furniture, electric appliances, music, customs and rituals. Thanks...
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