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Unformatted text preview: MIT OpenCourseWare 2.500 Desalination and Water Purification Spring 2009 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: Institut fr Chemische Verfahrenstechnik ELECTROMEMBRANE PROCESSES: STATE-OFTHE-ART PROCESSES AND RECENT DEVELOPMENTS DEVELOPMENT Universitt Stuttgart Summary Institut fr Chemische Verfahrenstechnik Universitt Stuttgart, Germany ELECTROMEMBRANE PROCESSES, THEIR STATE OF DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION Developed processes electrodialysis diffusion dialysis electrochemical synthesis water desalination, salt concentration acid and base recovery from mixtures with salts chlorine-alkaline electrolysis Developing processes bipolar membrane electrodialysis continuous electrodeionization energy conversion systems production of acids and bases regeneration of ion-exchange resins low temperature fuel cells To be developed processes catalytic membrane reactors electrodialysis hybrid processes hydrolysis of esters industrial waste water treatment Never to be developed processes ????? piezodialysis reversed electrodialysis water desalination electrodialytic energy regeneration ION-EXCHANGE MEMBRANES, THEIR FUNCTION AND PROPERTIES Ion-exchange membranes are polymer films with fixed ions anion-exchange membranes have positive fixed ions, e.g. NR3+ cation-exchange membrane have negative fixed ions, e.g. SO3required properties of ion-exchange membranes high ion selectivity low electrical resistance good form stability good chemical stability good temperature stability low cost properties of state-of-the-art ion-exchange membranes * ion selectivity 0.89 to 0.99 area resistance 1 to 5 [ cm2] swelling in solution 8 to 25Vol% stable in pH-range 1 to 14 stable at a temperature < 130 C costs 20.- to 500.- per m2 * properties determined in a 0.1 N NaCl solution ION-EXCHANGE MEMBRANES AND THEIR STRUCTURES AND PROPERTIES Homogeneous ion-exchange membrane homogeneous polymer structure with fixed ions Heterogeneous ion-exchange membrane ion-exchange resin particles imbedded in a polymer film Ion-exchange resin particle 60 to 70 Vol% of membrane high permselectivity and conductivity good mechanical properties high costs low permselectivity and conductivity poor mechanical properties low costs CONVENTIONAL ELECTRODIALYSIS The process principle ions are removed from a feed solution and concentrated in alternating cells a cation and an anion-exchange membrane, and a diluate and concentrate cell form a cell pair CONVENTIONAL ELECTRODIALYSIS The electrodialysis stack an electrodialysis stack is composed of 100 to 400 cell pairs between electrode compartments CONVENTIONAL ELECTRODIALYSIS Reverse polarity operating mode control of membrane fouling: "clean in place" CONVENTIONAL ELECTRODIALYSIS Water desalination costs ion-exchange electrodialysis reverse osmosis + + + + + + + + + + + + + Process principles of electrodialysis and reverse osmosis - cost 10.0 p distillation 1.0 - + H2O 0.1 H2O - + surface water 0.1 1 brackish water 10 sea water 100 feed water cncentration [g/L] electrodialysis reverse osmosis costs estimated for a required product concentration of < 0.2 g/L irreversible energy loss proportional to ion transport (Eirr = zi F Ci U V) irreversible energy loss proportional to water transport ( Eirr = p Vwater) CONVENTIONAL ELECTRODIALYSIS Major applications brackish water desalination and waste water treatment sea water and brine concentration demineralization of food and pharmaceutical products Advantages high brine concentrations due to no osmotic pressure limitation low fouling and scaling due to reverse polarity operation good chemical and mechanical stability of membranes Limitations only ions are removed from a feed solution low limiting current density at low diluate concentrations high energy consumption for desalination of concentrated feed solutions ELECTRODIALYSIS WITH BIPOLAR MEMBRANES The process principle production of acids and bases from the corresponding salt solutions ELECTRODIALYSIS WITH BIPOLAR MEMBRANES The process principle production of a pure acid and a base-salt mixture production of a pure base and an acid-salt mixture ELECTRODIALYSIS WITH BIPOLAR MEMBRANES Applications recovery of organic acids from fermentation processes regeneration of ion-exchange resins recovering and recycling acids and bases from waste water Advantages high energy efficiency relatively low initial investment costs no reaction by-products Limitations contamination of product by salt due to incomplete co-ion rejection poor chemical stability of the membranes in concentrated acids and bases scaling due to precipitation of multi-valent ions at the membrane surface CONTINUOUS ELECTRODEIONIZATION Mixed-bed ion-exchange resins Cat- and anion-exchange resins in separate beds between electrodes poor removal of weak acids high electrical resistance maximum achievable resistance < 12 M cm good removal of weak acids but electrode reaction by-products and cation leakage maximum achievable resistance < 10 M cm CONTINUOUS ELECTRODEIONIZATION Separated ion-exchange resin beds and bipolar membranes Separated ion-exchange resin beds, bipolar membranes and protection compartments good removal of weak acids, repeating units can be stacked between electrodes, maximum achievable resistance < 10 M cm good removal of weak acids, repeating units can be stacked between electrodes, maximum achievable resistance ~ 18.0 M cm CONTINUOUS ELECTRODEIONIZATION Comparing CEDI with and without protection compartment * D [S/cm] 0,25 CEDI with protection compartment provides: complete removal of weak dissociated acids and product water with a resistance of ~ 18.0 M cm 0,20 CEDI-BM 0,15 CEDI-BM-Pro 0,10 water 0,05 0,00 0 20 40 60 80 100 i [A/m2] *reverse osmosis permeate is used as feed ION-EXCHANGE MEMBRANES WITH SPECIAL SURFACE STRUCTURES AND THEIR USE Preparation of surface modified membranes 60 0.2 mm 0.32 mm 0.4 mm 0.5 mm 180 84 45 247 ION-EXCHANGE MEMBRANES WITH SPECIAL SURFACE STRUCTURES AND THEIR USE The stack construction Brine Product + - Feed Feed ION-EXCHANGE MEMBRANES WITH SPECIAL SURFACE STRUCTURES AND THEIR USE Comparing performance of flat membranes and profiled membranes ION-EXCHANGE MEMBRANES WITH SPECIAL SURFACE STRUCTURES AND THEIR USE Advantages high membrane surface area, i.e. less membrane area per unit plant capacity low achievable diluate conductivity, i.e. diluate conductivity ~1 S/cm low cell resistance, i.e. low energy consumption contacts between the membranes, i.e. better pH-control no spacer needed, i.e. low investment costs Disadvantages No long term practical experience ELECTROMEMBRANE PROCESSES: EFFICIENT AND VERSATILE TOOLS IN A SUSTAINABLE INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT Conclusions Electrodialysis is a mature process used mainly for water desalination, brine concentration, demineralization of food products and treatment of industrial effluents Electrodialysis with bipolar membranes is an economic alternative for the production of acids and bases, however membrane properties are not satisfactory Continuous electrodeionization with bipolar membranes is an economic process for the regeneration of ion-exchange resins without any process by-products Donnan- and diffusion-dialysis serve presently only small market segments and piezodialysis and reverse electrodialysis are still highly uneconomical The use of electromembrane processes is changing from conventional electrodialysis to hybrid processes and catalytic reactors with specific industrial applications Membrane and membrane stack production costs must be reduced ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/27/2012 for the course MECHANICAL 2.500 taught by Professor Miriambalaban during the Spring '09 term at MIT.

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