MIT2_500s09_read19

MIT2_500s09_read19 - MIT OpenCourseWare http:/ocw.mit.edu...

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MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 2.500 Desalination and Water Purification Spring 2009 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms .
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SAND REPORT SAND 2003-0800 Unlimited Release Printed March 2003 Review of Water Resources and Desalination Technologies James E. Miller Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94-AL85000. Approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited.
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Issued by Sandia National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government, nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, make any warranty, express or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represent that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government, any agency thereof, or any of their contractors or subcontractors. The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government, any agency thereof, or any of their contractors. Printed in the United States of America. This report has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from U.S. Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information P.O. Box 62 Oak Ridge, TN 37831 Telephone: (865)576-8401 Facsimile: (865)576-5728 E-Mail: reports@adonis.osti.gov Online ordering: http://www.osti.gov/bridge/ Available to the public from U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Rd Springfield, VA 22161 (800)553-6847 (703)605-6900 orders@ntis.fedworld.gov Online order: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.aspx#online 2
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SAND 2003-0800 Unlimited Release Printed March 2003 Review of Water Resources and Desalination Technologies James E. Miller Materials Chemistry Department Sandia National Laboratories P.O. Box 5800 Albuquerque, NM 87185-1349 Abstract Water shortages affect 88 developing countries that are home to half of the world’s population. In these places, 80-90% of all diseases and 30% of all deaths result from poor water quality. Furthermore, over the next 25 years, the number of people affected by severe water shortages is expected to increase fourfold. Low cost methods to desalinate brackish water and sea water can help reverse this destabilizing trend. Desalination has now been practiced on a large scale for more than 50 years.
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MIT2_500s09_read19 - MIT OpenCourseWare http:/ocw.mit.edu...

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