MIT2_500s09_sw03_pres

MIT2_500s09_sw03_pres - MIT OpenCourseWare...

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Unformatted text preview: MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 2.500 Desalination and Water Purification Spring 2009 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms. 2.500: Bringing potable water to Phaeton and Paulette. 2.500 - Term project 1 OUTLINE Our framework for evaluation the project Proposed solutions: short term solutions Bringing RO in third world countries SEE Solar still Conclusion and recommendations 2 FRAMEWORK Investment cost Operating cost Repairing cost Defining the criteria to assess the project Cost of system Our assesment: 10L/family/day (drinking) Our units: Cost: $/family/year Level of expertise required for the maintenance Level of expertise required for the operation Easiness of operation Bacteria/ viruses removal. Final level of salt. Contamination after treatment Sensitivity of the system to variation of feed water quality? 3 Reliability of the water produce Existing solutions Assessment of the existing situation What? Buying the sweet water (for cooking/ drinking/ domestic use). Specifications? 5 bucket /family /day How much? 45 $ / year / family Why not?: There is no distinction in quality between drinking water and domestic use It costs too much for some families It may not be safe 45$ / year /family 4 Short term suggestions Education Importance of the education -> water problem awareness classes. Aim 1: drinking water vs cooking water vs other uses Aim 2: pollution water (bacteria vs salts vs taste and odor) and assessment of safe water water Aim 3: Importance of drinking enough water to stay healthy 5 Long term solutions Bringing RO to Third World countries Step 1: Remove the clamp from the water tube Step 2: Fill the inside of the water tube with salt water Step 3: Put the 2 tube inside the tire. Step 6: Water runs along the permeate carrier Step 5: The water goes though the membrane Step 4: Inflate the air tube to 6 bars. Step 7: Water goes into the water valve Step 8: Deflate the air valve after 10min (time for achieving aimed recovery) Step 9: Pull the tubes out of the tire, pour the concentrate out Start again 6 Long term solutions Bringing RO to Third World countries What? Building a RO plant from bicycle parts. Specifications? 1L/30min (not a continuous process) Can run for 1 family drinking water (10L/day) How much? 10$ investment. 5$ for membrane replacement every year. Why not?: No prototype have been build Not a good estimation of the membrane life time ?? 15$ / year /family 7 Long term solutions Single effect evaporation 8 Long term solutions Single effect evaporation What? Specifications? How much? Using heat power source 6L/ 1Kg of wood 30$ investment (pot+ (wood, sugarcane charcoal copper tube). from the "Ecole du 96$ of wood a year / charbon") to evaporate family water from a pot into a copper tube. Why not?: Price of energy!!! (if no alternative combustible is possible) pollution 10-100$ / year /family 9 Long term solutions Solar still + Rain harvester Whole view of the solar still Section view of the still 10 Long term solutions Solar still + Rain harvester What? Building a solar still + rain harvester (one per family). Specifications? 4.3 m2 of active area per family 10L of water a day (for the solar still) How much? 65$ investment (black PVC film + wood frame + Transparent film). Running rime: 5years. Why not?: Contamination of the solar still by dust / rain Rely on the sun what about drinking water an a cloudy day 13$ / year /family 11 CONCLUSION- RECOMMENDATIONS INFORMATION/ EDUCATION of the population and need to separate drinking water to domestic use Evaporation using sugarcane charcoal RO self made system: a further assessment of the lifetime of membrane need to be done Solar Still: our prefer solution, but variability of sunshine 12 QUESTIONS? 13 ...
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