MIT2_500s09_sw05_pres

MIT2_500s09_sw05_pres - MIT OpenCourseWare...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 2.500 Desalination and Water Purification Spring 2009 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms. Water Purification for Paulette and Phaeton 9/23/2009 9/23/2009 1 History Solar distillation unit (300 m2) built in SourcePhillip near Port-au-Prince in Haiti. 9/23/2009 9/23/2009 2 Water usage 1000 ppm 300 ppm 300 ppm 6920 ppm Desalination System 1000 ppm 3860 ppm water 9/23/2009 3 Desalination options Criteria RO EDR MVC MSF MEE HDH Solar still Complexity Appropriate for Availability of small-scale Energy type N* + ++ ++ ++ --++ ++ + + Energy Efficiency ++ ++ N N --- 9/23/2009 * N stands for neutral 4 Energy options All values are in $/m3 Generator (PPO) 0.20 3.74 NA Windmill 0.03 0.53 NA Kites 0.03 0.50 NA Solar thermal NA NA 0.96 RO MVC HDH A cost analysis which estimates the total energy cost (the energy system cost + the fuel cost was carried out). 9/23/2009 5 Desalination cost RO with Kite power Equipment cost1 Energy system cost Total Cost (US$) 12,460 5694 18,154 Solar HDH 273,375 182,250 455,625 2.4 <0.96 Low Low VCD with Kite power 363,000 94,900 457,900 2.412 0.5 Medium Medium 6 Water cost2 0.096 (US$/m3) Cost-to-villagers3 0.03 (US$/m3) Level of Maintenance Skill required 1 High High 2 9/23/2009 Assuming membrane replacement every 2 years. Assuming 20 years life time. 3 Assuming a benefactor pays the initial investment. Design RO with Kite power Polyamide Thin-Film Composite spiral wound 8" element, 40 bar feed pressure, 34 m2 active area, 99% Salt rejection. Images removed due to copyright restrictions. Please see http://www.dow.com/liquidseps/images/element_family.jpg http://www.catpumps.com/select/photos/pump/6020.jpg http://www.naturalhealthland.com/catalog/images/1962.jpg 60 GPM, 100-1000 psi, 500 rpm Frame piston pump. Pre-filter contains a coconut shell, activated carbon filter to remove excess sediment and chlorine to extend the life of the reverse osmosis membrane. 9/23/2009 7 Kite power High average wind speed Image removed due to copyright restrictions. Please see Fig. 5 in: Canale, Massimo, Lorenzo Fagiano, and Mario Milanese. "Power Kites for Wind Energy Generation." IEEE Control Systems Magazine 27 (December 2007): 25-38. jeppmagic. "Kitegen Stem." July 6, 2009. YouTube. Accessed November 5, 2009. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zl_tqnsN_Tc Why Kites? High altitude wind More efficient 9/23/2009 8 Realization: Kite power t D CA eprin Blu One kite (A=4m2) Image removed due to copyright restrictions. Please see Fig. 2 in: Canale, Massimo, Lorenzo Fagiano, and Mario Milanese. "Power Kites for Wind Energy Generation." IEEE Control Systems Magazine 27 (December 2007): 25-38. Haitian Textile factory Main Components: Metal Spool Generator (min. 2kW) Car Battery Operation: 1 person to operate the system 9 KiteGen 40kW @ 15 m/s 9/23/2009 Design HDH 27m x 27m solar collector field Packed bed made from local materials Cooling coils made from stainless steel 60 GPM pump Plastic collection trays & cistern for storage 10 9/23/2009 Design Solar FPC Average Insolation ~4-4.9 kWh/m2/day 1.0-1.9 2.0-2.9 3.0-3.9 4.0-4.9 5.0-5.9 6.0-6.9 Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare. Courtesy of EERE. Easy to manufacture using local materials 11 9/23/2009 Conclusions Optimized water usage RO with kite power + Possible low cost option (min. capital investment) - Requires training of localites for skilled labor - Dependence on imports Solar HDH + Highly sustainable option (min. imports) - Costlier in terms of water cost (US$/m3) and capital investment 9/23/2009 12 Thank you! 9/23/2009 13 ...
View Full Document

Ask a homework question - tutors are online