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Unformatted text preview: MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 2.500 Desalination and Water Purification
1000 ppm 300 ppm 300 ppm 6920 ppm Desalination System 1000 ppm 3860 ppm water 9/23/2009 3 Desalination options
Criteria RO EDR MVC MSF MEE HDH Solar still Complexity Appropriate for Availability of small-scale Energy type N* + ++ ++ ++ --++ ++ + + Energy Efficiency ++ ++ N N --- 9/23/2009 * N stands for neutral 4 Energy options
All values are in $/m3 Generator (PPO) 0.20 3.74 NA Windmill 0.03 0.53 NA Kites 0.03 0.50 NA Solar thermal NA NA 0.96 RO MVC HDH A cost analysis which estimates the total energy cost (the energy system cost + the fuel cost was carried out). 9/23/2009 5 Desalination cost
RO with Kite power Equipment cost1 Energy system cost Total Cost (US$) 12,460 5694 18,154 Solar HDH 273,375 182,250 455,625 2.4 <0.96 Low Low VCD with Kite power 363,000 94,900 457,900 2.412 0.5 Medium Medium
6 Water cost2 0.096 (US$/m3) Cost-to-villagers3 0.03 (US$/m3) Level of Maintenance Skill required
1 High High
2 9/23/2009 Assuming membrane replacement every 2 years. Assuming 20 years life time. 3 Assuming a benefactor pays the initial investment. Design RO with Kite power
Polyamide Thin-Film Composite spiral wound 8" element, 40 bar feed pressure, 34 m2 active area, 99% Salt rejection.
Images removed due to copyright restrictions. Please see http://www.dow.com/liquidseps/images/element_family.jpg http://www.catpumps.com/select/photos/pump/6020.jpg http://www.naturalhealthland.com/catalog/images/1962.jpg 60 GPM, 100-1000 psi, 500 rpm Frame piston pump. Pre-filter contains a coconut shell, activated carbon filter to remove excess sediment and chlorine to extend the life of the reverse osmosis membrane.
9/23/2009 7 Kite power
High average wind speed Image removed due to copyright restrictions. Please see Fig. 5 in: Canale, Massimo, Lorenzo Fagiano, and Mario Milanese. "Power Kites for Wind Energy Generation." IEEE Control Systems Magazine 27 (December 2007): 25-38. jeppmagic. "Kitegen Stem." July 6, 2009. YouTube. Accessed November 5, 2009. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zl_tqnsN_Tc Why Kites? High altitude wind More efficient 9/23/2009 8 Realization: Kite power
t D CA eprin Blu One kite (A=4m2) Image removed due to copyright restrictions. Please see Fig. 2 in: Canale, Massimo, Lorenzo Fagiano, and Mario Milanese. "Power Kites for Wind Energy Generation." IEEE Control Systems Magazine 27 (December 2007): 25-38. Haitian Textile factory Main Components: Metal Spool Generator (min. 2kW) Car Battery Operation: 1 person to operate the system
9 KiteGen 40kW @ 15 m/s 9/23/2009 Design HDH
27m x 27m solar collector field Packed bed made from local materials Cooling coils made from stainless steel 60 GPM pump Plastic collection trays & cistern for storage
10 9/23/2009 Design Solar FPC
Average Insolation ~4-4.9 kWh/m2/day 1.0-1.9 2.0-2.9 3.0-3.9 4.0-4.9 5.0-5.9 6.0-6.9 Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare. Courtesy of EERE. Easy to manufacture using local materials
11 9/23/2009 Conclusions
Optimized water usage RO with kite power + Possible low cost option (min. capital investment) - Requires training of localites for skilled labor - Dependence on imports Solar HDH + Highly sustainable option (min. imports) - Costlier in terms of water cost (US$/m3) and capital investment 9/23/2009 12 Thank you! 9/23/2009 13 ...
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- Spring '09