MIT2_500s09_sw05_report

MIT2_500s09_sw05_report - MIT OpenCourseWare...

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MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 2.500 Desalination and Water Purification Spring 2009 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms .
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Purification of Water in Phaeton and Paulette 2.500 Term Project Report May, 2009 1 | P a g e±
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Abstract The term project is aimed at finding a solution to the water problem in the impoverished villages of Phaeton and Paulette in Haiti. Several options for water desalination and various sources of energy for the processes have been evaluated in this paper. Based on this a sustainable solution for the problem has been proposed. Also, a scheme for optimal water usage has been recommended. 1) The Problem The villagers of Paulette and Phaeton are facing many health problems because the salinity in their well water is too high. They are forced to consume this saline water because of high cost of the pumped water supply (which is much less saline) to their village. The cost of pumped water is 1 gourde per bucket. Each family (of an average size of 5 people) is known to consume 4-5 buckets a day. The total cost of water culminates to 10% of their income. This translates into 1.27 US$/m 3 of water, which is a very high cost. Many desalination plants around the world produce water at much cheaper rates than that. For example, an RO plant currently in operation at Ashkelon (Israel), produces water at 0.52US$/m 3 (Sauvet-Goichon, 2007). However, given that the capacity of water production required in Paulette or Phaeton is much smaller than standard desalination plants, the cost is also bound to be much higher because the economies of scale will work against these smaller plants. The first step to designing these plants will be to decide on the capacity. Based on data available to us, we propose a scheme to optimize water usage so that we can design the desalination unit for a smaller capacity and lower investment and operational costs. The following section details the same. 1.1) Optimizing the usage for reducing plant capacity It is uncommon for a person to consume more than ½ a gallon per day. Most of the water purchased by the villagers is, hence, being used for cooking, cleaning, bathing, laundry and so on. Some of these applications like cleaning, laundry and bathing do not require the purified water from the pumping stations. Also, the pumping station water is a bit on the saline side to drink (650 ppm in Phaeton). Figure 1 shows a schematic of the pattern of usage of the pumping station water. 2 | P a g e±
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Figure 1: A simulation of the usage pattern of water in a household in Paulette/ Phaeton. We propose a scheme (Figure 2) by which we will design a purification system to produce water at a salinity of 300 ppm. Some of this 300 ppm water will be mixed with the local family well water (3860 ppm) to produce 1000 ppm water. For all uses other than drinking and cooking, the 1000 ppm water can be used. The 300 ppm water can be used for drinking and cooking. Figure 2: Scheme to produce two grades of water for different usage
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This note was uploaded on 02/27/2012 for the course MECHANICAL 2.500 taught by Professor Miriambalaban during the Spring '09 term at MIT.

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MIT2_500s09_sw05_report - MIT OpenCourseWare...

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