bio- chap 6 - Chapter 6 I. Metabolism A. totality of an...

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Chapter 6 I. Metabolism A. totality of an organism’s chemical processes. An emergent property that arises from specific interactions between molecules in the cell B. concerned wuth managing material and energy resources of cell C. Metabolic Pathways 1. chemical reactions arranged in metabolic pathways that alter molecular by series of steps 2. enzymes accelerate steps 3. mechanisms regulate enzymes and balance metabolic supply and demand- avoids defecit or surplus of chemicals 4. Catabolic Pathways are degradative processes that release EG by breakin downcomplax molecules a. cellular respiration- sugar glucose and other organix fuels broken down to carbon dioxide and water b. EG becomes available to work 5. Anabolic Pathways consume EG to build compicated molecules from simpler ones a. synthesis of protein from amino acids 6. energy coupling- energy released from catabolism used for anabolism D. Energy 1. capacity to do work or ability to rearrange a collection of matter 2. kinetic EG a. energy of motion b. can perform work by imparting motion to other matter c. light harnessed by plants d. heat/thermal eg from random mvmnt of molecules 3. potential EG a. capacity to do work b. object can be at rest 4. conversion of a. chemical EG tapped when chem reactions rearrange atoms of molecules such that P.E. is converted to K.E. b. Cellular respiration and catabolism unleash EG in sugar E. Thermodynamics- study of EG transformations that occur in a collection of matter 1. system- matter under study 2. surroundings- everything outside system 3. closed system- isolated from surroundings 4. open system- EG transfer can occur between matter and its surroundings a. organisms 5. 1 st law Conservation of EG- eg of the universe in constant. Eg can be transferred and transformed but it can neither by created nor destroyed 6. 2 nd law- every EG transfer or transformation increases the entropy in the universe
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a. entropy- measure of disorder b. increased entropy is ecident in physical disintegration of a system’s organized structure c. orgs take organize forms of matter and EG from surroundings and replace them with less ordered forms 7. Energy transformations and heat a. ordered forms of EG are least partly converted to heat b. EG that performs useful work is eventually converted to heat c. Does not violate 1 st law of thermodynamics- quantity of eg is constant but quality is not d. System can only put heat to work when there is a temp
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bio- chap 6 - Chapter 6 I. Metabolism A. totality of an...

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