bio- chap 28 - Chapter 28 I Protists A Oldest eukaryotic...

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Chapter 28 I. Protists A. Oldest eukaryotic descendants of prokaryotes B. Acritrachs: earliest putative fossils, 2.1 billio yrs old C. Most diverse of all eukaryotes 1. many diff types of structure and cellular organization 2. most are aerobic 3. protozoan: absorptive 4. algae: photosynthetic D. Motility 1. have cilia or flagells at some point in their life cycles- are extensions of the cytoplasmb with bunbldes of microtubules covered by the plasma memb. E. Reproduction 1. extremely varied 2. mitosis 3. asexual 4. meiosis and syngamy (union of 2 gametes) F. Found in areas w/ water 1. account of half the photosynthetic production of organic material globally 2. plankton G. genesis of eukaryotes from prokaryotes 1. rend of evolution of multi ceullular prokaryotes where diff cell types served diff functions 2. trend of evolution of complex communities of prokaryotes, where each species benfitted from the metabolic specialities of other species 3. trend for compartmentalization of diff function w/in single cells a. endomembrane system of eukaryotic cells may have evolved from specialized infoldings of prokaryotic plasma memb. b. endosymbiosis, led to features of eukaryotic cells H. Endosymbiosis 1. theory by mereshckobsky and margulis 2. mitochondria and choloroplast were endosymbionts within a bigger host beore becoming permanenetly incorproated into the cell structure 3. serial endosymbiosis: sequence of endosymbiotic events. All orgs have mitochondria and only photosynthethic orgs have chloroplasts suggests that mitochondria evolved befopre chloroplasts 4.
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