chapter 4 book notes

chapter 4 book notes - Physical Geography Book Notes...

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Physical Geography Book Notes Chapter 4 Isolation and Temperature I. The Impact of Temperature on the Landscape a. Organisms have certain temp tolerances b. Extreme temps have more affect on the environment c. Inorganic soil and rocks are also affected by temp II. Energy, Heat, and Temperature a. Energy i. The ability to do work ii. Anything that changes the state or condition of matter iii. Kinetic, chemical, radiant etc energies iv. Cannot be created or destroyed, but can change forms v. When an object becomes warmer, its average kinetic energy is higher b. Temperature and Heat i. Temp is the average transitional kinetic energy ii. Heat (thermal energy) is the transfer of energy from one object to another c. Measuring Temperature i. Fahrenheit 1. freezing point 32°, boiling point 212° ii. Celsius 1. (F°-32°)/1.8 iii. Kelvin 1. C + 273° d. Solar Energy i. The sun supplies all of the Earth’s energy ii. Sun produces energy through nuclear fusion which it gives off through electromagnetic radiation 1. visible light- between .4 and .7 micrometers a. 47% of all energy from the sun 2. ultraviolet radiation- .01 and .4 micrometers a. 8% of all energy from the sun 3. infrared radiation- .7 and 1000 micrometers a. 45% of all energy from the sun 4. shortwave radiation from sun 5. longwave radiation from earth iii. Insolation- incoming solar radiation 1. average amount received at the top of the atmosphere is constant 2. solar constant is 1372 W/ m2 III. Basic Heating and Cooling Processes in the Atmosphere a. Radiation i. Hot bodies radiate short waves; cool bodies radiate long waves ii. Blackbody radiators radiate 100% efficiency b. Absorption i. Good radiators are also good absorbers of electromagnetic waves
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c. Reflection
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course GEOG 002 taught by Professor Foggin during the Fall '07 term at GWU.

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chapter 4 book notes - Physical Geography Book Notes...

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