stem cell niches 102709

stem cell niches 102709 - Stem Cell Niches October 27, 2009...

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Stem Cell Niches October 27, 2009 The Role of the Stem Cell Niches in Regulating Stem Cell Behavior – Leanne Jones Evaluation: answer 4 questions (in a slide) by the end of the course Define the stem cell niche and provide examples What features of stem cell niches and how do they influence stem cell behavior What are strategies for identifying stem cells and their associated niches Compare and contrast 2 stem cell niches 1. Review: pluripotency = can differentiate into all cell types, example is Embryonic Stem Cells a. Totipotency = can differentiate into a whole organism! 2. Tissue Stem Cells – Multipotent! a. Generate limited cell types b. Support tissue maintenance c. Repair of tissues after wounding d. Ex. Skin stem cells involved in the turnover of skin 3. Tissues maintained by stem cells a. Brain (hippocampus and subventricular zone), eyes, blood, liver, bone marrow, skin, muscle, spermatogenesis b. Skin – stem cells reside within a specialized region of the outer root sheath of a hair follicle (called “the bulge”) (hey, could laser hair treatments be called the “battle of the bulge?”) c. Blood – hematopoietic stem cells reside in the bone marrow of every bone (long bones are easier to study), near the surface at the tips of the bones c.i. Lots of controversy over the exact location 4. Major challenges: tissue stem cells a. Stem cells are rare (.003% of blood cells are hematopoietic stem cells) b. Very few markers available that can be used to locate stem cells easily in tissues c. Stem cells quickly lose stem cell characteristics when taken out of their normal environment 5. The stem cell niche theory a. “A hypothesis is proposed in which the stem cell is seen in association with other cells which determine its behavior. It becomes essentially a fixed tissue cell. Its maturation is prevented and, as a result its continued proliferation as a stem cell is assured.” – R. Schofield. (1978) Blood Cells 4(1-2): 7-25
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stem cell niches 102709 - Stem Cell Niches October 27, 2009...

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