Test 1 Study Guide

Test 1 Study Guide - Test Study Guide Intro Lecture Basic...

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Test Study Guide 10-25-10 Intro Lecture- Basic Building blocks of the immune system 1. Extracellular vs intracellular a. Extra cellular – bacteria, parasites b. Intracellular – viruses, some bacteria c. Note almost 75 percent of all human disease involove the immune system in some way 2. Smallpox a. 10-20 percent of all deaths till Edward jenner got the cure from hoe-bag milk maids b. Infected an eight year old, was the first vaccination 3. Chemical factors of innate immunity a. Fatty acids, lactic acids, pepsin (digestive enzyme which hydrolyzes protein, lysozyme (able o cleave petidoglycan layer from bacterial cell wall, complement, mucins (Prevent adherance in mucosal epithelia) acids in stomach, defiensins in skin and respiratory tract, colicins produced by commensal flora 4. Innate immunity provides anatomic barriers a. Skin, held together by tight junctions to prevent infectiond, thus, wounds a major source of infection 5. Cells of innate immunity a. Neutrophil – polymorphonuclear, profeesional phagocyte, migrates to site of infection b. Macrophages – circulate as monocytes, migrate toward inflammatory sites, phagocytose, release inflammatory mediators, antigen presentation c. Note, both produce antibacterial agents such as NO and H2O2 once phagolysosome is created – phagolysosome destroys microbe via NO and peroxidase d. Mast cell – very fast inflammatory response, found in mucosal tissue, circulate as basophils e. Eosinophils – particularly effective for combating larger organisms, parasites 6. Functions of innate immunity a. Deals with most minor infections, usually within 4 hours, b. recruits other cells to the site of infection 7. Adaptive immunity a. Needs more than four days to develop, adds specificity and memory to the immune system b. Primary lyphoid organs are where lymphocytes develop (bone marrow, liver, thymus) c. Secomdary organs are where immune responses are generated and lymphocytes are maintained Note (should know diagram of lymph node)
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d. Adaptive immune cells come from a lymphoid progenitor, innate immune cells usually come from a Myleoid progenitor e. Cells of adaptive immune system e.i. B cells 1. express surface Ig of two antibody classes, IgM and IgD e.i.1. Make specific antibodies to eliminate infection e.i.2. Antibodies e.i.3. Have two heavy chains and two light chains, both have a constant and a variable region e.i.3.a. Neutralize, opsonize, complement activation e.i.3.b. Compose of one heavy chain and one light chain e.i.3.b.i. FC fragment on heavy chain is where leukocytes attach, variable region attaches to pathogens e.i.3.c. Immunoglobulins e.i.3.c.i. Igg - major immunoglobulin (70-75%). Produced late in response – high affinity to antigen e.i.3.c.ii. Igm 10-15 percent of serum, produced in early response, activates complement well, low affinity but more binding sites, activated b cells switch from IgM to Igg, major immunoglobulin in mucosal secretions e.i.3.c.iii. IgE – bound to mast cells and basophile,
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This note was uploaded on 02/25/2012 for the course BIO 1421 taught by Professor Farr during the Fall '08 term at Texas State.

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Test 1 Study Guide - Test Study Guide Intro Lecture Basic...

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