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Chapter 1: Introduction: The 1890’s, a Preview of the Next Century - Telephone, typewriter, streetcar—revolutionizing of communications - New steel factories, food plants - Cities, millions of immigrants - Racism - Assert power as an international force outside America’s border - Issues: racial equality, role of women, economic disparities, America’s role in the world I. The Economic Transformation a. Natural resources in coal, oil, iron—America ahead in manufacturing, shipping, marketing b. Steel mills c. US steel and vertical integration—building and controlling own rail lines, raw materials used to make steel, manufacturing mills themselves, capital needed to pay—by 1901 controlled 2/3 of steel production in country i. Other examples: Singer sewing machine, Swift meatpacking plants, A&P grocery d. Population boom—1870-1910 number of people living in American more than doubled e. West---gold rush, as well as Asians and Mexicans f. Booming cities, tripled population of nations cities g. Jacob Riis— How the Other Half Lives— details of the bad city life i. Tenements, overcrowding, no ventilation, no sewer system, slum dwellers h. Also luxurious urban dwellers i. New immigrant classes—seeming to be “taking over” the country, undermining historic culture, language, religion, ruining morality and values i. Ethnic ghettoes—sense of community, family identity j. Morality Plays—Horatio Alger ( Ragged Dick, Tom the Bootblack) i. 1. Hard work paid off, anyone could make to top ii. Form of divine intervention was pivotal to success (rich benefactor
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k. Social Darwinism i. Predestination, if you deserved to make it, a larger force would propel you, poor people deserved to be poor because of flawed character II. The Underclass a. Workers had no power, competition for jobs b. Those who protested—threatened to bring in more Slaves, Poles, blacks c. No steady work d. “Unsteepled places of Worship” (EP Thompson)—English pubs, workers came together bonded, vision of better existence, beginning of strikes e. Pinkerton Strike—1892, 300 workers in a Carnegie Steel Mill in Pennsylvania, police force hired by industrialists to crush labor, steelworkers fought back, poured gasoline on river, Pinkertons surrendered, Governor had to send in 8000 troops before they surrendered f. George Pullman—Pullman cares (sleeping rains), slashed workers; wages by 35%, protest, refusal to call troops (Gov Altgeld), President G Cleveland called troops (1894) g. Coxey’s Army: 500,000 veterans threatened to come to Washington to demand a 500 mill dollar federal public works program in response to 4 year long depression (1894) h. Farmers complain, acreage of American farms increased by almost 300% from 1860-1900, but share of national wealth cut in health, Farmers’ Alliance formed i. Forced to find new labor system in south—sharecropping and tenant farming i. Farm laborers, white and black, would cultivate a portion of a planter’s land in return for income from certain share of crop or knowing that since
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booknotesvolpe - Chapter 1: Introduction: The 1890s, a...

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