dpt 542 exam 03 study guide

dpt 542 exam 03 study guide - DPT 542 Pharmacology Exam 3...

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1 | Page DPT 542 – Pharmacology Exam 3 Part 10 – Gastrointestinal Medications What are the three classes of drugs used to control gastric acid? Control of gastric acidity Antidiarrheals Laxatives Describe antacids and some associated problems: Antacids are a chemical base (carbonate or hydroxide) that neutralize the acid in the stomach Problems: o Drugs that contain aluminum can cause constipation o Drugs that contain magnesium can cause diarrhea o Acid rebound – because the acid in the stomach has been neutralized, the stomach thinks that there is a deficiency in HCl and secretes more acid to make up for the difference after the patient quits taking the antacid Useful for intermittent or short term use; not useful for long term use What does histamine do in the stomach? Increases the secretion of HCl by binding to H 2 receptors in the gastric mucosa Describe the effects of H 2 blockers (examples: Tagamet, Pepcid, Zantac) H 2 receptor blockers block the H 2 receptors so that histamine cannot stimulate HCl secretion Available over the counter Improvement over the antacids because they help reduce the actual production of HCl in the first place Useful for intermittent use; no major side effects What do proton pumps and proton pump inhibitors do? (examples: Nexium) A proton pump is an enzyme in the stomach wall that secretes H + ions into the stomach. The H + links up with chloride ions to form HCl. A proton pump inhibitor reduces the H+ concentration, thus reducing the overall amount of HCl in the stomach. How are opioids used as antidiarrheals? Opiods can treat diarrhea directly by decreasing GI motility or indirectly by influencing CNS control of the GI tract Some drugs (absorbents) work by removing whatever is irritating the GI system in the first place in order to stop the diarrhea What do laxatives do? (examples: Metamucil and MgOH) Laxatives draw water into the GI tract Others can directly stimulate the CNS to cause contractions in the GI wall
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2 | Page Part 11 – Infection Medications Describe bacteria: Bacteria are single cell microorganisms that rob the human tissues of nutrients and emit waste products that are harmful to the human tissue How they are different from human cells: o They have a rigid cell membrane (oncotic pressure is higher in the bacteria) o They have different types of ribosomes than human ribosomes o They have a different nucleic acid metabolism than human cells Describe the three main functions of antibacterial drugs: They inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis and function They inhibit bacterial protein synthesis They inhibit bacterial DNA/RNA synthesis and function Describe how bacterial cell wall synthesis and function is inhibited (examples: penicillin) By inhibiting the production of the cell wall, the cell cannot live very long The cell wall in bacteria is more rigid than the cell wall in a human due to the presence
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dpt 542 exam 03 study guide - DPT 542 Pharmacology Exam 3...

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