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Unformatted text preview: Basic Facts of Aging Since 1770s there are as many elderly people as teenagers in the US Age groups o Elderly: 65 75 o Old: 75 85 o Very old: >85 Total population of individuals 65+ is 30 million (12.5%) By 2030 65+ is expected to be 50 60 million (20%) Over 90% of health care money goes to older individuals Median age in USA o 1970 28 o 2000 33 o 2010 37 o Est 2030 - >40 Until 2005 the fasted growing phase of population was octogenerians (80s) o Now it is nonagenerians (90s) with octo in second Older individuals women:men = 3:2 Roughly 20% of elderly are dependent on SS o Avg yearly SS payment is only $12,000 Avg lifespan is expected to decrease o Avg lifespan is 78 o In 1900 it was 45 o Increased because of vaccines o Max lifespan is 115 -120 Has not changed throughout the history of man kind Cannot change under natural conditions o Avg is expect to decrease because of: Obesity Leads to diabetes, CV disease, etc. Resistance to vaccines Super viruses Last actual medicine was created over 30 years ago o All medicines are altered versions because drug patent is 15 years MRSA o Was only hospital based o Now community based o Kills over 30,000 individuals in the country Theories of Aging Disposable soma theory One of the earliest theories Soma somatic cell Our system will spend all its energy to maintain germ cells In animals as soon as they reproduce they age rapidly within a couple of days Salmon, possum, etc. If you delay reproductive age of animal their lifespan increases by 50-75% Programmed (neuroendocrine) theory One of the first theories introduced by Harvard in the 60s Chronometer a gene that functions as a time keeper When it stops working the cell shuts down Scientists were unable to find the gene but found compounds that aid in the aging process Sarcopenia muscle aging Decrease in synthesis of proteins due to decrease in growth hormone Leads to falling and breaking bones GH Increase utilization of fats and carbs Leads to frailty when aging American endocrinology society decided elderly should not be treated with GH because of side effects Wear and tear theory Combination of physical and emotional stress leads to aging Physical continuous use of joints leads to arthritis Emotional ACH Under stressful conditions the body produces ACH which causes adrenal cortex to produce steroids Steroids induce gluconeogenesis to produce more energy Also are immunosuppressants Individuals who are always stressed are at much more risk of developing cancer Gene mutation theory There are significant numbers of mutations in our genes that lead to cell destruction Test Are there mutations during aging Yes Is the increase as big as expected No Genes have 2 segments Introns non coding region...
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