final study guide

final study guide - GOVT 3665: FINAL EXAM REVIEW The...

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GOVT 3665: FINAL EXAM REVIEW The Lockean Tradition I. Locke and the founders a. Nov. 1772, Boston — Sam Adams drafts “The Rights of the Colonists” (p. 108) i. Adams was one of the most radical of the founding fathers ii. Emphasizes the natural rights of people = life, liberty, property (109) — the first law of nature b. July, 1776, Philidelphia — Thomas Jefferson drafts Declaration of Independence i. “All men created equal … unalienable rights” c. Q: Where did all of this come from? i. Adams (109) tells us “Mr. Locke has asserted….” — Locke has a “stranglehold on American political thought d. Q: How did Locke come to dominate? i. Locke was the great theorist of the Glorious Revolution ii. Triumph over the parliamentary government over monarchial government occurred when William and Mary came from Holland to rule England 1. Locke’s Second Treatise on Government was written in defense of the Glorious Revolution 2. Countered the political beliefs expressed Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathan a. Emphasized legitimate governments based on a social contract b. Men in the state of nature must succumb to social contract in order to live civilized lives and avoid war iii. Locke was the principle theorist of the Enlightenment 1. Read by everyone who could read 2. Described as the “currency preachers could use” iv. Locke never saw America II. Rights, consent and limited government a. Government created to protect the natural rights of man i. Every individual has a fundamental human dignity — a set of rights no one cane take away from, deprive them of ii. Rights are not secure in the pre-political state, thus people need to create a social contract 1. People give up rights to government and unite for the mutual preservation of property 2. Government is created to preserve sacred rights iii. When government fails to protect natural rights, we can change the government — Declaration of Independence b. Revolutionary doctrine — government created by people, rather than given to the people i. Government is limited according to Locke and is a necessary evil ii. Government doesn’t tell you what to do, what to believe in c. The state has no moral or religious purpose III. Separation of Church and State (p. 74, Kramnick and Moore) a. Jefferson — government has no role in religion; by interfering it goes against government’s original purpose that is to protect individual rights IV. Lockean individualism: Property and the philosophy of work a. Property = most important natural right i. Property gives concrete meaning to the notion of individualism, makes individuality tangible ii. There is a moral connection between property and the individual iii. By working, you extend yourself to create something that is your own, bears your stamp iv. Protestant ideal: it is God who has told us to work, to subdue and improve the earth — links Locke to Puritanism b. Locke’s theory on work and Protestant work ethic will differentiate the working class from
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final study guide - GOVT 3665: FINAL EXAM REVIEW The...

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