midterm review

midterm review - Criminology: An interdisciplinary study of...

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Unformatted text preview: Criminology: An interdisciplinary study of the causes of crime and the consequences of societal response to criminal behavior - Studies making laws- Breaking laws- Reacting towards the breaking of laws Criminal Justice System: The agencies charged with enforcing the law at each stage of the justice process. Criminal Justice: 1. An organization that persuades people through subtle and not so subtle means to abide by the dominant values of society - They are the only ones that have power over life liberty 2. Systems approach: focus on formal system or process a. Individuals move through different stages and agencies 3. An informal model of justice: Courtroom workgroup individuals work together in a cooperative effort to settle cases and keep the system moving along a. Most cases are settled without trial 4. A non-system: A loose confederation of different government agencies chartered to enforce the criminal law 5. CHAPTER SIX: Police mission in democratic society: 1. Enforcing the law 2. Investigating crimes and apprehending offenders 3. Preventing crime a. Crime prevention : the anticipation, recognition and appraisal of a crime risk and the initiation of action to eliminate or reduce it - Techniques include: access control, barriers in entryways, video surveillance, locks, alarms, etc. - Operation Identification: discourage theft by labeling property 4. Ensuring peace and tranquility a. Quality of Life offense: A minor violation of the law that demoralized community residents and business people. It could be acts that create physical disorder like excessive noise and vandalism or that reflect social decay like prostitution. b. Broken Windows modeling: physical decay in a community can breed disorder and lead to crime by signaling that laws are not being enforced. It pushes law-abiding citizens to withdraw from the streets and lawbreakers get a signal that they can operate freely. Instituted in the 1990s during the zero tolerance era 5. Human and Social Services needs in community CompStat: A crime analysis and police management process built on crime mapping, developed by NYCPD in the mid 1990s - Public order has its cost by: o Police resources paid for by tax dollars o A reduction in the numbers and extent of liberties that are available to members of the public Core Law Enforcement Strategies: 1. Preventive patrol 2. Routine incident response 3. Emergency response 4. Criminal Investigation 5. Problem solving *Support services (ancillary)- The first four reflect the conventional way in which police have been working Preventive patrol: - Objective: To prevent and detect offenses and to promote general feelings of security - Aim: Absence of crime, low levels of citizen fear, high rate of police detection of offenses Routine Incident Response: - Objective: Record incident, resolve dispute, provide or take information - Aim: Complaint satisfaction, response time, fair treatment of parties, proper completion report - Response Time: A measure of time that it takes for police officers to respond to...
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midterm review - Criminology: An interdisciplinary study of...

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