Notes - CriminalJustice 20:15 WhatisCriminology?

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Criminal Justice 20:15 What is Criminology? Study on the cause of crime and consequences of society response to criminal behavior Related to economics, political science, sociology – social science methods to answer  research questions Sutherland’s definition: body of knowledge regarding crime as a social phenomenon Includes: process of making laws, breaking laws, and reacting toward breaking laws’ Objective development of body of general and verified principles and other types of  knowledge regarding this process of law, crime, and treatment Criminal Justice Agencies: RXNS of agencies of official social control Agencies of social control that handle criminals Describe, analyze, and explain behavior of agencies Examine policies and responses of key actors Police, courts, prisons Economic response, humane response Violations of criminal law and responses of agencies of social control – socially  prescribed laws and how society response Common Elements of Crimes Violations of criminal law Criminal justice involved Issues of prevention Issues of treatment and punishment (victims and criminals) Number of victims >>> number of criminals because of repeat offenders Criminal Justice Systems Agencies charged with enforcing the law at each stage of the justice process System: input/output Major actors of criminal justice Police : enforce law, reduce/prevent crime, maintain peace and public order, investigate  crime, apprehended offenders Criminal Courts : be fair and official, ensure due process, focus on process and make  sure it’s followed correctly, protect against violations of due process
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Correctional agencies:  rehabilitate and reform offenders, carry out sentences imposed  by courts Agencies interact from competing perspectives Functionalist model Work together toward a common goal of controlling crime and reducing its burden on  society Complex system that works towards a common goal Often don’t do it, but that’s their goal Conflict model Agencies as self-servicing and compete for limited resources Not an actual criminal justice system Scale of criminal justice agencies in the U.S. is HUGE 55,000 different public agencies over 17,000 police agencies and courts (most countries have only a few) 8,000 prosecutorial agencies 6,000 correctional institutions 3,500 parole and probation departments number of agencies decreases as area covered increases High Direct economic costs of controlling crime Public pays for over 2 million people to work in these agencies 900,000 in law enforcement 150 billion dollars of annual budget about $400 for each U.S. resident 15 million arrests per year correctional population of over 6 million
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This note was uploaded on 02/25/2012 for the course ECO 101 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '10 term at Texas State.

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Notes - CriminalJustice 20:15 WhatisCriminology?

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