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notes about ch 7 and societies

notes about ch 7 and societies - HUNTING AND GATHERING...

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HUNTING AND GATHERING SOCIETIES The society with the fewest social divisions The group usually has a shaman who leads the group and has some form of power The most egalitarian group of all societies PASTORAL SOCIETIES Based on the pasturing of animals Developed in areas with less rainfall Nomadic in nature HORTICULTURAL SOCIETIES Based on the cultivation of plants with the use of hand tools Led to the development of permanent settlements Both developed from the hunting-gathering societies about 10-12 thousand years ago THE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY Made possible by the invention of the plow Occurred 5 to 6 thousand years ago Created a surplus of food making cities possible Associated with the “dawn of civilization” INDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES Initiates by the invention of the steam engine (First used in 1765) Goods are produced by machines powered by fuels -Raw material access Social inequality increased in all aspects -Workers had no rights POSTINDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES Made possible by the invention of the microchip Emphasizes technology and the selling of information and services The U.S. is the postindustrial leader BIOECONOMIC Characterized by the application of genetics SOCIETY AND SELF In what ways does society affect who we are? Health Birth, aging, dying Well-Being Stress, relaxation Personality Shapes our core values and beliefs CHAPTER 7 BUREAUCRACY Traditional Orientation – The idea, characteristic of tribal, peasant, and feudal societies, that the past is the best guide for the present
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Rationality – The acceptance of rules, efficiency, and practical results are the right way to approach human affairs Rationalization of society – A widespread acceptance of rationality and a social organization largely built around this idea Karl Marx suggested that capitalism was responsible for the transformation of society o Enabled merchants to become the emergent class Merchants usurped the power of the aristocracy o Capitalism broke religious and social traditions o Capitalism responsible for the transformation of society Max Weber – The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism o Societies ruled by religion o Lutherans believed in hard work God helps those who help themselves o Calvinists believed the sign of God’s favor was wealth Capitalism is rooted in the religious transformation of society Capitalism – The investment of capital with the goal of producing profits Adam Smith wrote “The Wealth of Nations” o Division of Labor (DOL) Example of the pin factory Formal Organization – A secondary group designed to achieve explicit objectives o Secondary groups Designed to achieve specific objectives o A central feature of contemporary society o Includes most social institutions and activity outside the family o Characterized by rationality TYPES OF FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS o Etzioni’s Typology Utilitarian Work
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