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soc 222 lecture notes

soc 222 lecture notes - Week 7 Garland Culture of...

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Week 7: Garland, Culture of Control. (1-57) Week 6: Chapter 14, “New Directions in Criminological Theory” in Beirne and Messerschmidt Criminology (E-reserve) Week 5: Jack Katz, Sneaky Thrills & Ways of the Badass. Feb 2, 2009 Monday Part I: Theories of Crime, Why crime? Part II: Reactions (social reactions) to Crime—Punishment—Mass Incarceration, policy debates Deviance: Either a state of behavior or a state of being that departs from a group’s normative expectations and elicits reactions oriented toward punishing, rehabilitating, or isolating the offender Is all deviance criminal? Obesity, homosexuality… Anti-discrimination statutes. Social change, evolution in terms of how something is perceived. Is all crime deviant? Jaywalking. Underage drinking but changes under different circumstances. Crime = lawbreaking, intersection of deviance and crime Is there such a thing as universal crime? Or is crime culturally relative and historically specific? Argument that there are 3 universal crimes: Homicide, Rape, Incest Capital punishment, euthanasia, war. But in these cases, you are doing things that are known to be bad but in a certain situation it’s okay. It’s still bad but is being used as a form of punishment. But this isn’t true for suicide bombings. Us vs. them justification. Have to define crime within its particular historical context. What’s going on in history that leads groups to classify something as crime or not crime. Who’s defining crime, where, when? Feb 4, 2009 Wednesday Criminal Justice is what you do once crime has been committed. How do you treat criminals 1 st part of course: Theories of crime causation / Criminology I. Individual – Historically see crime as focusing on a particular person – why did person x commit a specific crime and how do we understand that about that individual. You can use it to apply to groups but it mostly focuses on the person. a. Biology/Sociobiology (Vold reading) b. Psychoanalytic/Personality II. Social Structural – shifts focus away from individual (assumption that they committed something, and that something is a crime), turns to does society have a role in how we define crime? a. Anomie/strain (Durkheim) – are there moments in history a specific interest in defining groups as deviant b. Conflict Theories (Marx) III. Interactive and Newer Theories – uses both social and individual, combo of all kinds of explanations of crime a. Learning/Differential association b. Control theories c. Phenomenological/Existential (Katz) d. Routine activities
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e. Integrative (very modern, postmodern) – Greg Barak, Integrative Criminologies. You can pick and choose among different theories to understand crime Think about why crimes occur, and critical analytic ways about what makes a particular type of crime and why Individual theories of crime Biology/Sociobiology The notion of finding biological roots of crime. Nobody has been able to find such a root Why the ongoing interest in biological explanations? [It makes it easy to solve the problem, place the blame] Examples in historical overview
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soc 222 lecture notes - Week 7 Garland Culture of...

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