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Unformatted text preview: SPECIAL TOPICS IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE: INTELLIGENCE STUDIES WHAT IS INTELLIGENCE? "Common sense is not so common" (Voltaire) Intelligence is different from information-processing. It's not the sort of brain intelligence, or small-letter i intelligence that psychologists study. Intelligence is " secret knowledge of an enemy, the kind of knowledge which stands independently of the means by which it is obtained and the process by which it is distilled " (Troy 1991). Intelligence is the same as " foreknowledge, a kind of prophecy-like craft, which is always on alert, in every part of the world, toward friend and foe alike " (Dulles 1963). Intelligence is never an end in itself, but always directed toward other ends, such as winning a war, coming out ahead of the competition, or aiding the investigation of crime, in which case the title "intelligence analyst" is practically synonymous with "crime analyst." Intelligence is also a social science, since it tries to analyze and predict political, economic, and social behavior. Social science is value-free, and intelligence is somewhat similar in trying not to be completely partisan or political. Like criminology, intelligence tries to be policy-relevant as " the collection and analysis of intelligence information relevant to a government's formulation and implementation of policy to further its national security interests and to deal with threats from actual or potential adversaries " (Shulsky & Schmitt 2002). Intelligence can be thought of as a PROCESS (the means by which secret information is collected, analyzed, and disseminated), as a PRODUCT (the analyses, reports, and briefings that are useful or actionable), and an ORGANIZATION (a collection of units or agencies that carry out intelligence work). As a process, intelligence is illustrated below: In law enforcement as well as government in general, the way it's usually put is by saying intelligence is a staff, not a line function . Organizational theorists might call it an aide-de-camp function. This means that intelligence is almost always an add-on, luxury item for most organizations. It also means that intelligence organization usually involves a community of equals or loose confederation of agencies trying to work together on common priorities. Hence, the word "community" instead of "system" is frequently encountered, as in the entity known as the intelligence community (IC), consisting of about 15 agencies that try to work together (see graphic below). Criminal justice, has of course, always strived to work as a system, and it's ironic that people-processing organizations tend to organize in terms of systems while information-processing ones do not....
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This note was uploaded on 02/25/2012 for the course ECO 101 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '10 term at Texas State.
- Fall '10
- The Land