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Unformatted text preview: Review sheet Exam 1 T HE 4 LOBES OF THE BRAIN Frontal: Cortex anterior to the central sulcus and beneath the frontal skull. Integrates sensory and motor functions, planning. Temporal: Cortex lying below the lateral fissure, beneath the temporal bone at the side of the skull. Controls visual, auditory and gustatory functions. Occipital: Cortex at the back of the brain and beneath the occipital bone of the skull. Controls visual functions. Parietal: Cortex posterior to the central sulcus, beneath the parietal bone at the top of the skull. Controls tactile/sensory functions. T WO CELLS OF THE NS 1. Neurons 2. Glia Cells B ASIC NEURONAL STRUCTURE Soma : cell body Axon : sends information out of the neuron to others Dendrites : receive incoming information Synapse: close apposition of one axon ending to cell body or another neuron; space between the neurons, some communication occurs from axon to next neuron “ SPECIALIZED ” PARTS OF THE NEURON ( CELL MEMBRANE , AXON HILLOCK ) Nucleus: a group of neurons in a cluster that can be identified with special stains to form functional grouping: usually have related functions Nerve: large collection of axons coursing together outside the nervous system- Afferent: carries information from the sensory receptors in the skin to the brain- Efferent: carries information from the brain to the neurons controlling muscles Tract: collection of axons coursing together inside the central nervous system G LIA CELLS : TYPES AND WHAT THEY DO . 1. Ependymal 2. Astrocyte 3. Microglial 4. Oligodendroglial produces Myelin 5. Schwann produces Myelin 1 3 PHILOSOPHICAL PERSPECTIVES ON BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR 1. Mentalism : An explanation of behavior as a function of the nonmaterial mind, the mind is an explanation of behavior-Aristotle, Psyche 2. Dualism : A nonmaterial mind and the material body contribute to behavior (Mind-Body problem). Mind directs rational behavior-Descartes, mind is located in the pineal gland 3. Materialism: Behavior can be explained as a function of the nervous system without explanatory recourse to the mind-Wallace and Darwin…natural selection T WO MAIN DIVISION OF NS Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System 3 MENINGES COVERING THE BRAIN 1. Dura Mater : “Hard Mother”; tough outer ayer of fibrous tissue, covers the entire brain 2. Arachnoid Layer : “Spider Web”; thin sheet of delicate connective tissue, supports the brain, keeps it from moving. 3. Pia Mater : “Soft Mother”; moderately tough innerlayer that clings to the brain’s surface, folds into sulci. W HAT WHITE MATTER AND GRAY MATTER ARE COMPOSED OF Gray Matter: cell bodies of neurons throughout the brain White Matter: nerves/axons/tracts, covered with myelin T HREE MAIN PARTS OF NS ( ALTERNATIVE ORGANIZATION ) Central NS Somatic NS Autonomic NS Brain/Spinal Cranial Nerves Spinal Nerves Sympathetic Parasympathetic Cord (head,face,neck) “fight/flight” “rest/digest” 3 MAIN PARTS OF CRANIAL NS 1. Forebrain: cortex, limbic system, basal ganglia (movement, memory, drug 1....
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This note was uploaded on 02/25/2012 for the course ECO 101 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '10 term at Texas State.
- Fall '10