Study Guide IM5005

Study Guide IM5005 - Study Guide IM5005(CHECK ABOUT INTRO...

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Study Guide IM5005 (CHECK ABOUT INTRO LECTURE) Allergy and Disease 1 and 2 1. Atopy a. The predisposition to produce high quantities of immunoglobulin IgE a.i. Type 1 hypersensitivity a.ii. Involves mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, and Th2 cells 2. Allergy a. First described by Prausnitz and Kustner in 1921 a.i. They proposed something in serums of allergic subjects, “atopic reagin” b. Seen in 30-35 percent of the population b.i. Detection by skin prick test or radio absorbant test (RAST) c. elevated IgE levels seen in allergy and parasitic infection c.i. binds to mast cells and basophils, often specific for harmless environmental factors c.ii. once binds to mast cells, triggers effector phase and degranulation across cross linkage 3. Allergens a. Usually enzymes/proteases a.i. For example, not animal fur that people are allergic to, it’s the salivia from the animal 4. Allergic inflammation a. Much more complex than histamine release b. Involvement of a whole host of cells, cytokines, chemokines, and mediators 5. Allergic Rhinitis a. Factors can be Seasonal or perennial b. Symptoms b.i. Mucus production, itching, sneezing c. Treatment- antihistamines or nasal steroids 6. Urticaria a. Allergen induced (often shellfish) b. Symptoms b.i. Wheal and flare (spots on chest), itching, c. Treatment – antihistamines 7. Atopic dermatitis a. Allergen – induced particularly milk protein from the gut enters the blood stream b. Deposits in skin, causes mast cell degranulation c. Symptoms – exfoliating exzema and itching d. Can progress to asthma
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e. Treatment – antihistamines 8. Anaphylaxisis a. Very Acute and sever allergic reaction b. Usually to peanuts, shellfish, penicillin, or insect stings c. Allergen moves from gut into bloodstream c.i. Triggers a massive histamine release from mast cells and basophils c.ii. Causes vasodilation – leads to a dramatic drop in blood pressure c.iii. If not treated with adrenaline, often fatal 9. Affects of histamines a. In the skin – wheal, erythema, pruritis b. In the eye – conjunctivitis, erythema, pruritis c. Nose – nasal discharge, sneeze, pruritis d. Lung – bronchospasm of smooth muscle e. NOTE: good diagram listed on power point in slide 25 10. IgE a. Very Low Serum concentraion - .00005 mg/ml b. Sensitizes mast cells and basophils by binding via Fc portion to high affinity receptor Fc R1 (great diagram on slide 29 you should know) c. Serum half life of a few days d. Binding protects IgE from destruction by serum proteases e. Sensitisation can last for many months f. Detection by skin prick test or radio absorbant test (RAST) g. IgE production g.i. In B cells g.i.1. 2 signals required g.i.1.a. First signal is IgE with allergen linking with a b cell (internalized and processed g.i.1.b. Second signal is t cell with same allergen binding and producing IL-4 and IL-13 (Both induce IgE switching in B cells) g.i.2. Inhibiting cytokines in IgE production g.i.2.a. IFN gamma, IFN alpha, TGF beta, IL-8, IL-
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Study Guide IM5005 - Study Guide IM5005(CHECK ABOUT INTRO...

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