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AnthFirstExamReview - Ant 184 First Exam Review Culture...

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Ant 184: First Exam Review Culture Definitions o Traditions and customs transmitted through learning that is the basis for beliefs and behavior of people exposed to them o Shared understanding that characterize a group of people that distinguishes them from others Characteristics o Shared o Learned and transmitted through groups o Symbolic o Contested (interpreted different ways) o Integrated o Changed o Used actively Ethnography o Definition Is both a field based research method to study culture, as well as a descriptive text based on the study o Fieldwork Use of diary and field notes o Participant Observation Taking part in the events one is studying o Informant The subject of the study – new term - collaborator Emic vs. Etic o Emic- description of behavior that is culture-specific; study of culture in terms of its internal elements and its functioning rather than in terms of any exiting external scheme o Etic- description of behavior that can be applied to other cultures; culture- neutral; non constructional, objective Ethnography as Text o Descriptive narrative o Typically rendered in the “present” – a “slice” of time o Traditionalyl based on one authorial voice (ethnographer, anthropologist, or sociologist) o New narrative – multiple voices Ethnicity Definition o Entails identification with a given ethnic group, which are formed around common social and cultural features such as nationality, religion, and language Same as culture? o Self-ascription, selective o Not the same as CULTURE because ETHNICITY is a group identity where the creation and maintenance of the boundaries are more about
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self-ascription – one that is a selective utilization of a few cultural features or signs such as language, general lifestyle, and grand rituals o It requires and assumption that there is something essential or given in the distinction between people – one of which is the presumption of common descent through narrative or myths of origin, migration, and especially the suffering in the hands of others. They are conveyed by adults to children and through songs, folklore, ceremonies, performances, artistic creations and written ethnic histories Primordial Approach o Definition Primordialists focus on “communities of culture” Focuses on culture and tradition to explain the emergence and preservation of ethnicity o Critique Primordial ties do not always lead to ethnic unity Primordial explanations of ethnicity cannot readily account for variations of ethnic awareness Issues of economic and political inequalities are often treated as a secondary phenomenon resulting from another Instrumentalist Approach o Definition Instrumentalists focus on “cultures of interest” Assumes that participation within the confines of one’s ethnic group is primarily a strategic tool for getting resources o Critique Extreme versions of this approach construct ethnic group
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