Anthropology Final Outline

Anthropology Final - Liam Leonard Anthropology Final Outline Chapter 5 • Two reasons to study primates o Reasoning by homology Closest living

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Unformatted text preview: Liam Leonard Anthropology Final Outline Chapter 5: • Two reasons to study primates o Reasoning by homology Closest living relatives o Reasoning by analogy Natural selection leads to similar organisms in similar environments • Primates are diverse o Use of comparative method – insight about adaptation • Traits that define a primate o Opposable toes o Prehensile hands o Nails instead of claws o Hind limb dominated o Unspecialized olfactory apparatus o Vision is highly developed o Small litter – long gestation periods o Large brains o 2-1-3 • Primates o Prosimians (Strepsirhines) Nocturnal Lemurs, lorises, galagos, tarsiers o Anthropoids (Haplorhines) Diurnal Platyrrhini (New World) • Arboreal, quadrapedal, live in forested areas, round nostrils, 2-1-3 • Howlers, squirrel monkeys, capuchins, marmosets Catarrhini (Old World) • Cercopithecoidea o Narrow nostrils (downward facing), 2-1-2 o Colobines, vervet monkeys • Pongidae/hominoids o Gibbons and siamangs = brachiators (propel themselves by arms alone) o Oranguntans are in Asia • Primate conservation o Habitat destruction Deforestation Wild fire o Hunting o Live capture for trade and export Chapter 6 • Energy requirements o Basal metabolic rate o Active metabolism o Growth rate o Reproductive effort • Where primates get food from o Carbohydrates Gum Fruit o Protein Insects Young leaves o Vitamins, fats, oils Seeds • Classifications o Frugivore – fruit (high quality) Rounded teeth – long small intestine o Folivore – leaves (low quality) Specialized gut to handle toxins o Insectivore – insects Sharp cusped teeth o Gummivore – gum Stout incisors and claws for clinging • Generalizations o Primates must a tow primary food sources, one of protein, and one of carbohydrates o Primates usually rely heavily on certain types of foods o Insectivores < frugivores < foliovores in terms of size Smaller animals have larger energy requirements (no storage) • Activity patterns o Primates spend their time eating, sleeping, and moving in their home range • Defending a home range o Resource defense Limited and clumped resources Enough to feed the group o Mate defense Secure access to mates • Predation o 1-15% predation every year o Defenses Alarm calls Association with members of another species • Living in a group o Benefits Less vulnerable to predators • Detection • Random chance Can protect access to food o Costs Increased competition for food and mates More vulnerable to disease Other various hazards (cannibalism, cuckoldry, infanticide, etc) • Distribution of females o Scramble competition Resources are distributed evenly across the landscape – can’t monopolize resources • Females are not philopatric because there is no need to be o Contest competition Direct confrontations over a limited or monopolized resource Competition within ones group...
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This note was uploaded on 02/25/2012 for the course ANTH 3322 taught by Professor Agwuele during the Fall '10 term at Texas State.

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Anthropology Final - Liam Leonard Anthropology Final Outline Chapter 5 • Two reasons to study primates o Reasoning by homology Closest living

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