{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

Anthropology Final Outline

Anthropology Final Outline - Liam Leonard Anthropology...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–5. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Liam Leonard Anthropology Final Outline Chapter 5: Two reasons to study primates o Reasoning by homology Closest living relatives o Reasoning by analogy Natural selection leads to similar organisms in similar environments Primates are diverse o Use of comparative method – insight about adaptation Traits that define a primate o Opposable toes o Prehensile hands o Nails instead of claws o Hind limb dominated o Unspecialized olfactory apparatus o Vision is highly developed o Small litter – long gestation periods o Large brains o 2-1-3 Primates o Prosimians (Strepsirhines) Nocturnal Lemurs, lorises, galagos, tarsiers o Anthropoids (Haplorhines) Diurnal Platyrrhini (New World) Arboreal, quadrapedal, live in forested areas, round nostrils, 2-1-3 Howlers, squirrel monkeys, capuchins, marmosets Catarrhini (Old World) Cercopithecoidea o Narrow nostrils (downward facing), 2-1-2 o Colobines, vervet monkeys Pongidae/hominoids o Gibbons and siamangs = brachiators (propel themselves by arms alone) o Oranguntans are in Asia Primate conservation o Habitat destruction Deforestation
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Wild fire o Hunting o Live capture for trade and export
Background image of page 2
Chapter 6 Energy requirements o Basal metabolic rate o Active metabolism o Growth rate o Reproductive effort Where primates get food from o Carbohydrates Gum Fruit o Protein Insects Young leaves o Vitamins, fats, oils Seeds Classifications o Frugivore – fruit (high quality) Rounded teeth – long small intestine o Folivore – leaves (low quality) Specialized gut to handle toxins o Insectivore – insects Sharp cusped teeth o Gummivore – gum Stout incisors and claws for clinging Generalizations o Primates must a tow primary food sources, one of protein, and one of carbohydrates o Primates usually rely heavily on certain types of foods o Insectivores < frugivores < foliovores in terms of size Smaller animals have larger energy requirements (no storage) Activity patterns o Primates spend their time eating, sleeping, and moving in their home range Defending a home range o Resource defense Limited and clumped resources Enough to feed the group o Mate defense Secure access to mates Predation o 1-15% predation every year o Defenses Alarm calls
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Association with members of another species Living in a group o Benefits Less vulnerable to predators Detection Random chance Can protect access to food o Costs Increased competition for food and mates More vulnerable to disease Other various hazards (cannibalism, cuckoldry, infanticide, etc) Distribution of females o Scramble competition Resources are distributed evenly across the landscape – can’t monopolize resources Females are not philopatric because there is no need to be o Contest competition Direct confrontations over a limited or monopolized resource Competition within ones group
Background image of page 4
Image of page 5
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}