Anthropology Notes

Anthropology Notes - Anthropology Notes Archaeological...

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Anthropology Notes Archaeological Method and Theory Goals of Archaeology : Document culture, history, and chronology: Who, what, when, where? Description and dating of sites and their contents, identifying prehistoric cultures and their distribution in time and space, and the development of regional sequences of prehistoric cultures through time. Reconstruct past lifeways and environments. How did they live? Explain patterns in the past by determining the underlying processes. Why? Middle Range Theory Includes much experimental or action archaeology The study of the way in which specific processes such as butchering and eating an animal affects the patterning of bone fragmentation, survival and spatial patterning. Another example of MRT involves experiments to determine how making and using stone tools leads to specific patterns of stone tool manufacturing byproducts. - FACTS : Artifacts : things made or modified by people (ex: arrowheads, pots, beads) Ecofacts : Items of biological origin that are found in association with artifacts (ex: shells, bones, seeds, wood, pollen) Geofacts : the geological setting and sediments in which artifacts and ecofacts are found (ex: rock shelters, caves, beaches, streams) Archaeological types : Morphological types: descriptive (shape, size, color), attributes, may be any or all of the other types Functional types: potential or actual use (knife, arrowhead, pot) Temporal types: morphological types with specific time ranges. Limited to a narrow time range Cognitive types: morphological types that reflect the perceptions of the makers Mental template : inferred idea form of artifact maker Materiality : meanings recognized by makers, meaningful symbols Cultural vs. Natural transformations Cultural Primary discard at activity location Secondary discard away from activities Activity organization and occupation duration Natural Decay of structures
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Destruction and movement of bones and plants by weathering and decaying processes and animal activities Redistribution by water Archaeological methods Survey Foot survey Remote sensing Stratified random sampling Excavation Analysis Classify sites Climate change and Hominid origins Why did G, C, and H ancestor split 5-7 mya? Climate change Messinian Salinity Crisis: (5 mya) created a very dry climate, and the forests decreased which caused species to isolate (allopatry) Forest Refugia Character displacement- a niche shift in the face of competition Allopatric-speciation requires isolation of populations Sympatric- when similar species reunite and become competition Homo and Paranthropus both appear suddenly around 2.5 mya Stone tools as an adaptive threshold Ethoarchaeology and the archaeology of Pliocene Australopithecus Ethographic: the study of animal behavior Ethnographic: the descriptive study of humans and human societies
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This note was uploaded on 02/25/2012 for the course ANTH 3322 taught by Professor Agwuele during the Fall '10 term at Texas State.

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Anthropology Notes - Anthropology Notes Archaeological...

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