, as an intermediary level of adaptation involves short term changes which are reversible,
but whose potential may be linked to genetic factors.
E.g. tanning is a short-term acclimatization response which is conditioned by genes.
, as the most plastic level of adaptation involves behavioral changes which are
reversible, and whose potential is conditioned by culture, environment, and genotype. E.g. wearing
clothing to maintain the body‘s core temperature in a cold climate.
Biological, ecological, and behavioral processes by which organisms (and, sometimes,
species) change in terms of form or function, in order to cope with environmental stresses, including
those deriving from cultural practices.
adaptation, levels of
Human response to stress follows a continuum from accommodation to
acclimatization to genetic evolution:
1) accommodation, immediate psychological and behavioral change (clothing, housing);
2) acclimatization, short to medium-term change (tanning; breathing changes at high altitude);
3) genetic evolution, long-term, non-reversible (inherited differences characterizing different gene pools
within a species). See also Skin color
ancient land bridge between Asia (Siberia) and the Americas (Alaska), now underwater; the
probable route of entry of modern Homo sapiens into the Americas, from Eurasia during Pleistocene
glacial periods, and now covered by the Bering Strait
birth interval, or birth spacing
The number of years between one completed pregnancy and
another. Mo bile hunter-foragers, the spacing is ca. 4 years; for farmers, about 2 years
Trait which is very insensitive to environmental conditions during development,