Social status gained through one's own abilities and actions
Age of Discovery
A time of European exploration, discovery, and enlightenment about the world, which began
about 500 years ago and lasted through 18th century. Important features included
● global exploration, prompted by commerce and colonialism
● technological discoveries and developments prompted by exploration and facilitating new gains in commerce and
● the combined effect of these advances with ideas of the Renaissance hastened the demise of faith-based Middle
Ages concepts of an unchanging, earth-centered universe
Major change in human food-getting practices, involved enlarging the resource base,
collecting (gathering, hunting, fishing, etc.) and using a wider range of plants and animals
cargo and cargo cults
In Melanesia, including New Guinea, cargo cults are a revitalization movement, based on
the expectation of the imminent return of ancestors in ships, planes, and trains, bringing treasures (cargo) of
One of the world‘s oldest sedentary farming villages (earliest levels are pre-farming), with earliest
known remains of metal working (copper) and weaving. Dated to ca. 9,000 years ago, about 7000 BC (FYI: 7300 to
6500 B.C.). Located in the northern arc of the Fertile Crescent, in the Taurus Mts on the Ergani Plain (Turkey); at the
time of occupation, steppe forest of pistachio and oak trees, Mediterranean environment.
Skeleton found in Gough‘s Cave, near Cheddar, England. Radiocarbon dated to 9,000 years ago (ca.
7000 BC) (thus contemporaneous with Çayonu (southwest Asia)). Mitochondrial DNA extracted from the teeth
matched exactly with numerous individuals now living in the same area
civilization, cradles of
Six broad regions of the world where civilization arose with no significant influence from an
already existing civilization. The regions are Mesopotamia, Egypt, river valleys of northern China, Indus Valley of
India, Mesoamerica and Andean South America.