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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 15 KINETICS: THE STUDY OF RATES OF REACTION 15.1 THE RATE OF A REACTION IS THE CHANGE IN REACTANT OR PRODUCT CONCERNTRATIONS WITH TIME 15.2 FIVE FACTORS AFFECT REACTION RATES Chemical nature of reactants o Tendencies of their atoms, molecules, or ions to undergo changes in chemical bonds Ability of the reactants to come in contact with each other o Homogeneous reaction o Heterogeneous reaction Concentration of the reactants o More reactant, reaction rate is quicker Temperature o Insect example; cold blod; rates of chemical metabolism slow down Availability of catalysts o Catalyst substance that increases the rate of chemical reactions without being used up (enzymes) 15.3 RATES OF REACTION ARE MEASURED BY MONITORING CHANGE IN CONCENTRATION OVER TIME magnitudes of the rates relative to each other are in the same relationship as the coefficients in the balanced equation Most reactions slow down as reactants are used up Instantaneous rate the rate at which a reactant is being consumed at any one moment in time (slope of the tangent line to the curve) 15.4 RATE LAWS GIVE REACTION RATE AS A FUNCTION OF REACTANT CONCENTRATIONS...
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- Fall '11