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Chapter 4 Outline - ChemistryChapter 4 Outline I General...

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Chemistry—Chapter 4 Outline I. General Properties of Aqueous Solutions A. Aqueous Solution : a solution in which water is what causes other substances to dissolve B. What other substances dissolve in is called the solvent C. The other substances in solution are the solutes C.a. Dissolve in the solvent (ex: NaCl dissolving in water) II. Electrolytic Properties A. Water = bad conductor of electricity—presence of ions causes aqueous solution to become good conductors B. Ions carry electrical charge from one electrode to other C. Electrolyte – substance whose aqueous solution contains ions (NaCl) D. Nonelectrolyte – substance that does not form ions in solution III. Ionic Compounds in Water A. Ionic solids break down into its component ions as it dissolves B. Water is an electrically neutral molecule, but one end is rich in electrons with a partial negative charge and the other side positive charge B.a. Positive ions are attracted to negative end of H2O and negative ions are attracted to positive end of H2O C. Solvation - process that helps stabilize the ions in solution and prevents cations and anions from recombining IV. Molecular Compounds in Water A. When molecular compounds are dissolved in water, solution usually consists of unbroken molecules dispersed throughout solution. B. Most molecular compounds = nonelectrolytes C. A few are aqueous solutions that contain ions V. Strong and Weak Electrolytes A. Strong -solutes that exist in solution completely or nearly completely as ions A.a. All soluble ionic compounds and a few molecular compounds are strong B. Weak - solutes that exist in solution mostly in the form of molecules with only small amounts in form of ions C. Chemical equilibrium - relative numbers of each type of ion or molecule in the reaction are constant over time D. Half arrows represent ionization of weak electrolytes, single arrow represents ionization of strong electrolytes D.a. Half arrows in both directions means molecules are ionizing and ions are recombining, no reverse arrow means ions are not recombining E. Soluble ionic compounds are strong electrolytes VI. Precipitation Reactions A. Precipitation reactions - reactions that result in the formation of an insoluble product B. Precipitate- an insoluble solid formed by a reaction in solution C. Precipitation reactions occur when certain pairs of oppositely charged ions attract each other so strongly that they form an insoluble ionic solid
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VII. Solubility Guidelines for Ionic Compounds A. Solubility - the amount of the substance that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent at the given temperature B. Any substance with a solubility less than 0.01 mol/L is insoluble B.a. In these cases the attraction b/w the oppositely charged ions in the solid is too great for the water molecules to be separated.
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