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Unformatted text preview: Chemistry 83 Review Outline (2) 2 nd Atmosphere of the Planet Volcanic in Origin Molecular Covalent substances released o CH 4 H 2 O H 2 N 2 Outgassing Brings Water to Earth o Weathering by Rainwater and Sandstorms o Geothermal Vents o Photolysis Breaking Apart of Chemical Bonds by Light (Radiation) o Bombardment by Meteorites (Containing Water) Water = Most Abundant Component on Earth + Has Strongest Forces of Attraction Intermolecular Forces and the Formation of Oceans Water has the greatest intermolecular forces of all molecules in 2 nd atmosphere o Tend to liquefy first as temperature decreased H bonding, Dipole-Dipole, London Dispersion o Water vapor cooled in volcanic atmosphere condensed to liquid state to produce rain Became the oceans o Other molecules remained gases in 2 nd atmosphere 71% of the Earths surface is covered by oceans Nuclear heating and energy of thousands of collisions with smaller planet-types and meteorites caused Earth to become molten o Core of the Earth differentiated into layers based on density of substance o Outgassing Gases released as core was differentiating Responsible for release of gases from interior of Earth = First Atmosphere Water Cycle QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. KEY FEATURES OF WATER CYCLE o Energy supplied by sun Drives evaporation from treetops or ocean surfaces Moves weather systems o Precipitation occurs when water condenses from gaseous state in atmosphere Evaporation is opposite process o Gravity pulls water underground or across surface Groundwater or Runoff o Lakes, Ponds, Wetlands = Temp water Traps o Rainfall and Snowfall = Relatively clean water (minus pollutants) Solubility of Substances Solid Molecular Compound o Molecules in the solid are polar then they dissolve in water Liquid Molecular Compound o Miscible Two liquids mix Liquid molecules are polar, miscible in water o Immiscible Two liquids do not mix (separate) Liquid molecules are nonpolar, immiscible in water Like Dissolves Like Solubility of Ionic Compounds in Aqueous Solution o Tug of War between polar water molecules and ions in salt If water-ion attraction win, than the salt is soluble Ion-Ion attractions win, salt is insoluble o Solvated Atomic level---Ions are solvated by water molecules Hydration cage Water molecules around solvated ion o In order to have reactions of ionic substances, these need to be in solutions where the cations and anions are free to react separately Best solvent for ionic substance is water (polar solvent) Concentrations of Solutions Dissolved something in Liquid = Solution o Liquid = Solvent, Solid (Stuff Dissolved) = Solute Unsaturated o If you were to add more solute to the liquid it would continue dissolving Saturated o Liquid has dissolved all of solute possible Supersaturated o More solute dissolved than possible o Very hot saturated solution cooled down Molarity...
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