chemistry 103 5-7 study guide

chemistry 103 5-7 study guide - Chapters 5-7 Study Guide...

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Chapters 5-7 Study Guide Chapter 5 - Kinetic and Potential Energy Kinetic energy-energy associated with motion The motion of atoms, molecules, or ions at the submicroscopic (particulate) level (thermal energy). All matter has thermal energy. The motion of macroscopic objects like a moving tennis ball or automobile (mechanical energy). The movement of electrons through a conductor (electrical energy). The compression and expansion of the spaces between molecules in the transmission of sound (acoustic energy). Examples: o Lance Armstrong riding up a mountain o Translation, rotation, and vibration of molecules = thermal energy Potential Energy-results from an object’s position Energy possessed by a ball held above the floor and by the water at the top of a waterfall (gravitational energy). Energy stored in fuels (chemical energy). All chemical reactions involve a change in chemical energy. The energy associated with the separation of two electrical charges (electrostatic energy). Examples: o Lance at top of mountain o Energy stored in fuels and food = chemical energy - Heat and Temperature Temperature is a way to measure an object’s ability to transfer energy as heat. When 2 objects at different temperatures are brought into contact, energy will be transferred as heat from the one at the higher temperature to the one at the lower temperature. - Endothermic, Exothermic, System, and Surroundings Exothermic = energy is transferred as heat from a system to its surroundings. The energy of the system decreases and the energy of the surroundings increase. Endothermic = energy is transferred as heat from the surroundings to the system, increasing the energy of the system, decreasing the energy of the surroundings. System = an object, or collection of objects, being studied. Surroundings = everything outside the system that can exchange energy and/or matter with the system - Heat Capacity, State Functions, Enthalpy, Internal Energy, Work, Standard States, and Standard Enthalpy of Formation
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Specific Heat Capacity (C) = the energy transferred as heat that is required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 kelvin. The units are J/( g x K). Specific Heat Capacity is a characteristic intensive property of a pure substance. For internal energy and enthalpy, the changes in these quantities that accompany chemical or physical processes depend only on the initial and final states. They don’t depend on the path taken to go from the initial to the final state. This is called a state function. Neither the energy transferred as heat nor the energy transferred as work individually is a state function but their sum, the change in internal energy, ∆U, is. Enthalpy, Thermodynamic Function:
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chemistry 103 5-7 study guide - Chapters 5-7 Study Guide...

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