chemistry 103 ch 1-4 study guide

chemistry 103 ch 1-4 study guide - Chapters 1-4 Study Guide...

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Chapters 1-4 Study Guide Chapter 1 - States of Matter and Kinetic-Molecular Theory Solid-rigid shape and fixed volume. Particles are packed closely together, in a regular array and seldom move into new area. Liquids-fixed volume, fluid and takes on shape of container. Molecules are arranged randomly and particles move past one another. Gases-fluid, volume is determined by the size of container. Molecules move rapidly because they are not constrained. Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Matter-a theory of the behavior of matter at the molecular level (second half of solid, liquid, and gas definitions). The higher the temperature the faster the particles move. - Matter at the Macroscopic and Particulate Levels Macroscopic-processes and properties on a scale large enough to be observed directly. Submicroscopic = particulate-not seen by the naked eye, atoms and molecules, and the individual particles that make up all matter. - Pure Substances Every substance has a unique set of properties by which it can be identified. Pure substances generally cannot be separated into two or more different species, otherwise it would be called a mixture. - Mixtures: Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Homogeneous = solution-a mixture in which the properties are the same throughout, regardless of the optical resolution used to examine it Heterogeneous-a mixture in which the properties in one region or sample are different from those in another region. - Elements, Atoms, Compounds, and Molecules Elements are composed of only one type of atom. Currently 117 are known and are listed on the periodic table. Atoms are the smallest particle of an element that retains the characteristic chemical properties of that element. Chemical compounds-a pure substance which is composed of two or more different elements held together by chemical bonds. Unlimited amount of compounds made from the known elements. When elements become part of a compound, their original properties, such as color, hardness, and melting point, are replaced by the characteristic properties of the compound. Major difference between mixtures and pure compounds: compounds have distinctly different characteristics from their parent elements, and they have a definite percentage composition (by mass) of their combining elements. Ions are electrically charged atoms or groups of atoms. - Physical and Chemical Changes Physical properties are used to distinguish different chemical substances (like their appearance and density).
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A physical change does not result in a new chemical substance being produced, the atoms present before and after the change are the same. An example is the melting of a solid. A chemical change is a change in which one or more substances (reactants) are
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chemistry 103 ch 1-4 study guide - Chapters 1-4 Study Guide...

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