chemistry 103 ch 1-4 teachers notes

chemistry 103 ch 1-4 teachers notes - Chapter 1-4 Teachers...

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Chapter 1-4 Teacher’s Notes Chapter 1 Notes From Prof - Chemistry = science of matter - Forms of Matter (Ch 1.3 and 1.4) Element = substance composed of a single type of atom e.g. gold, O2 Atom = smallest particle of element that retains chemical properties e.g. single Au atom, O atom Compound = substance composed of more than 2 distinct types of atoms e.g. sugar, water, table salt Molecule = smallest discrete unit of compound (or element) that retains chem. Properties water H2O - Homogeneous -sample is uniform throughout eg. -Air (N2 +O2) -Salt solution - Heterogenous - eg. -blood -milk Gold-matter, homogenous, pure substance, element Water-matter, homogenous, pure substance, compound - Physical Properties (Ch 1.5)- can be measured without changing composition of substance eg. Color, boiling point (bp), melting point (mp), density (=mass/volume), physical state (solid, liquid, gas) Intensive properties -do not depend on amount of sample eg. Color, boiling point, melting point, density, physical state Extensive properties -do depend on amount of sample eg. Mass, volume - Changes in Physical and Chemical Properties (Ch 1.6) Physical changes: chemical composition of sample is preserved e.g change in physical state (ice melting and freezing) can be described by “kinetic-molecular theory of matter” macroscopic level increase temp add kinetic energy Solid Liquid Gas Particles are tightly Radom arrangementParticles are far apart; microscopic packed; carry out of particles; move fill container level vibrations past one another - Chemical Changes Change in elemental composition => Chemical reaction Represented by chemical equation (2H2 + O2 2H2O) Chapter 2 Notes from Prof-Atoms, Molecules, and Ions - Atomic Structure (Ch 2.1)
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Based on experiments by Thomson, Rutherford, ets (pg 339-347 full experiments) 3 subatomic particles: Protons- positively charged nucleus-very dense, almost all mass Neutrons Electrons-negatively charged (1/2000 mass of protons and neutrons) - Atomic Number and Mass (Ch 2.2) Atomic number = number of protons Mass number = number of protons + number of neutrons eg. Na 11p+ 23 Na 12n [11]-------not necessary - Isotopes (Ch 2.3) Atoms of given element (constant Z = number of protons) with different numbers of neutrons eg. 1 H ---(hydrogen) 2 H = D ---(deuterium) 1 1 - DEMO 2H2 +O2 2H2O Green balloon-pops, but no reaction (He) Yellow balloon-big “pop” reaction (H2) Red balloon-big bang reaction (H2 +O2) - Isotopes (Ch 2.3) For given number of protons (=given element), the number of neutrons can vary. 1 H 2 H = D 3 H = T 1 1 1 1 p+, 0n 1p+, 1n 1p+, 2n hydrogen deuterium tritium Mass spectrometer 1) Convert element to gas 2) Make positive particles 3) Moved forward by negative charge 4) Magnetic chamber 5) Particles are deflected based on mass and charge Percent abundance = # of atoms of given isotope x 100% total # of atoms of that element
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chemistry 103 ch 1-4 teachers notes - Chapter 1-4 Teachers...

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