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Unformatted text preview: Criminal Justice Review Up to Midterm Lecture 1 • What is criminology? o An interdisciplinary study of the causes of crime and the consequences of response to criminal behavior o “process of making laws, of breaking laws, and of reacting toward the breaking of laws” o Focus of study of violations of the criminal law and the responses of agencies of social control • Agencies interact from competing perspectives o Functionalist Model: complex system that works together towards a common goal. o Conflict Model: no actual criminal justice system, self-serving agencies • Controlling Crime is expensive o $150 billion annual budget ($400 for each US resident) o 15 million arrests per year • Different views of how to study criminal justice o Institution of Social Control: Organization that persuades people to abide by the dominate values of a society. Subtle means- gossip and peer pressure Not-so-subtle means – incarceration or expulsion o System’s Approach of Criminal Justice: formal system or process where individuals move through different stages and agencies Stages of the System: • Initial Contact – act/incident • Investigation – gather evidence against the suspect to support legal arrest • Arrest • Custody (or booking) – administrative process of officially recording after arrest • Charging – case is left to the prosecutor’s office to see if the case should proceed to grand jury or preliminary hearing • Grand Jury / Preliminary Hearing – gov’t must prove probable cause o Grand Jury: group of citizens CLOSED hearing. o Indictment: issued when specific charges for which the accused must stand trial o Preliminary hearing – information is filed before lower trial court OPEN hearing. Judge rules of evidence. • Arraignment – formal charges are read / constitutional rights read. Defendant must enter a plea (not guilty, guilty, standing mute, nolo contendere), trial date set, bail considered. • Bail/Detention – Money bond with purpose to ensure defendant will return to court • Plea Bargaining – bring case to conclusion without trial (90% cases end this way) • Trial/ Adjudication – tried in front of judge who decides if the evidence is sufficient beyond reasonable doubt. • Sentencing/ Disposition – if guilty, return to court to learn sentence • Post-conviction remedies (appeals) – defendant can appeal if believes they were not treated fairly. • Correctional Treatment – defendant is placed in custody of correctional authorities • Release • Post-Release o Informal Model of Justice: courtroom “workgroup”. Individuals work together in cooperative effort to settle cases and keep the system moving along. Most cases settled without trial (80% felonies and 90% misdemeanors)....
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- Fall '08
- Criminal Justice, property crime, grand jury, Criminal Justice Review, value property crime