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Unformatted text preview: P100 Test 1 Review Sheet Chapter 1: Criminal justice system- Criminal Justice Process: the decision making points from the initial investigation or arrest by police to the eventual release of the offender and his or her reentry into society- Trends in correctional populations o Probation- over 4 million o Prison- 1,400,000 o Parole- 775,000 o Jail- 691,000 Formal criminal justice process: - 15 steps and who oversees them o Initial Contact- Police a result of police action, see a person acting suspicious, respond to a victim of robbery, an informant tells police about some illegal activity, a person confesses a crime o Investigation- Police gathering sufficient evidence to identify a suspect and support the arrest o Arrest- Police police officer believes there is sufficient evidence or a probable cause, deprives the individual of freedom, the suspect believes that he is now in the custody of police and has lost his liberty o Custody- Police after the arrest and while the suspect is being detained o Charging- prosecution and defense if the arresting officer or superiors believe there is enough evidence to charge the person with the crime, it gets turned over to the prosecutor, they then can decide to charge the suspect with the crime or to take no further action in the case (nolle prosequi) o Preliminary hearing/ grand jury- prosecution and defense Before the case takes place the government must prove that there is probable cause. In about half of the states and the federal system the decision is made by the grand jury in a closed hearing. If there is enough evidence then the grand jury will issue a true bill of indictment, which specifies the exact charge and the accused must stand trial. In the remaining states the prosecution will file a charging document before a lower trial court. o Arraignment- prosecution and defense Before the trial begins the defendant will be brought before the court that will hear the case. At this time formal charges will be read, the defendant is read his constitutional rights, an initial plea (guilty or not guilty), a trial date, and bail issues are considered. o Bail/Detention- prosecution and defense A money bond that is levied to ensure the return of the criminal defendant for trial, if they cannot afford bail they remain in custody. o Plea Bargaining- prosecution and defense After arraignment if not before, the defense and prosecution will discuss a possible guilty plea exchange for reducing or dropping some of the charges. Almost 90% of all cases end in a plea bargain rather than in trial. o Trial/adjudication- court If an agreement cannot be reached a trial will be held before a judge (bench trial) or jury....
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- Fall '08
- Criminal Justice